GI pharmacology II Flashcards Preview

Year 2 Pharmacology > GI pharmacology II > Flashcards

Flashcards in GI pharmacology II Deck (34):
1

what is the result of D2 receptor stimulation in the GI smooth muscle?

prevent release of Ach / neuronal firing (decrease motility, negative regulator)

2

what are the prokinetic agents?

1. metoclopramide
2. bethanechol
3. neostigmine
4. erythromycin

3

what is the mechanism of action of metoclopramide?

D2 antagonist

4

what is the mechanism of action of bethanechol?

M3 agonist

5

what is the mechanism of action of neostigmine?

AchE inhibitor

6

what is the mechanism of action of erythromycin?

motilin receptor agonist

7

what are the common osmotic agent laxatives?

1. magnesium hydroxide
2. sorbitol
3. lactulose
4. polyethylene glycol (PEG)

8

what are the mechanisms by which stimulant laxatives work?

1. stimulation of ENS
2. induces leaky mucosa
3. inhibition of sodium uptake by gut

9

what are the common stimulant laxatives?

1. anthraquinone (aloe, senna)
2. castor oil
3. diphenylmethane derivatives

10

what is the mechanism of action for the serotonin receptor laxatives?

1. activation of 5-HT4 receptors promotes NT release in ENS resulting in motility
2. decrease firing of extrinsic sensory neurons to the CNS (block pain)

11

what is the mechanism of action for chloride channel activating laxatives?

1. activation of chloride ion channel 2 (CIC2) from luminal side
2. increase luminal concentration of chloride in the gut leading to accumulation of sodium and water
3. motility and softer stool

12

what is the effect of mu opioid receptor antagonist laxatives?

prevention of constipation without decrease in pain management (cannot penetrate BBB)

13

what kind of agent is tegaserod?

laxative - serotonin partial agonist

14

what kind of agent is lubiprostone?

laxative - chloride channel activator

15

what kind of agent is methylnaltrexone?

laxative - mu opioid receptor antagonist

16

what kind of agent is alvimopan?

laxative - mu opioid receptor antagonist

17

how do opioids alter GI smooth muscle?

1. decrease perisaltic contractions
2. increased segmental contractions (mixing)
3. increased internal anal spincter tone
4. decreased perception of GI distension

18

how do the bismuth antidiarrheal agents work?

inhibition of PG synthesis and absorption of toxins

19

what kind of agent is octreotide?

somatostatin analog that inhibits motility and promotes fluid absorption

20

what type of drug is loperamide (Imodium)? what is the mechanism of action?

1. antidiarrheal
2. opioid agonist

21

what type of drug is diphenoxylate (Lomotil)? what is the mechanism of action?

1. antidiarrheal
2. opioid agonist

22

what type of drug is bismuth subsalicylate (Pepto-Bismol)? what is the mechanism of action?

1. antidiarrheal
2. inhibits PG synthesis

23

what type of drug is cholestyramine (Prevalite)? what is the mechanism of action?

1. antidiarrheal
2. binds bile salts and bile acids

24

what type of drug is octreotide (Sandostatin)? what is the mechanism of action?

1. antidiarrheal
2. somatostatin receptor agonist

25

what are the key vestibular receptors involved in the emetic response?

H and M

26

what type of agent is odansetron (Zofran)? what is the mechanism of action?

1. antiemetic - direct
2. 5-HT3 blocker

27

what type of drug is scopolamine? what is the mechanism of action?

1. antiemetic - direct (MOTION SICKNESS)
2. M1 antagonist

28

what type of drug is metoclopramide (Octamide)? what is the mechanism of action?

1. antiemetic - dierct
2. D2 antagonist

29

what type of drug is dimenhydrinate (Dramamine)? what is the mechanism of action?

1. antiemetic - direct (MOTION SICKNESS)
2. H1 antagonist

30

what type of drug is aprepitant (Emend)? what is the mechanism of action?

1. antiemetic - direct
2. NK1 antagonist

31

what type of drug is prochlorperazine (Compro)? what is the mechanism of action?

1. antiemetic - direct
2. M1, D2, H1 antagonist

32

what type of drug is lorazepam (Ativan)? what is the mechanism of action?

1. antiemetic - indirect (anxiety, chemotherapy)
2. GABA agonist

33

what type of drug is nabilone (cesamet)? what is the mechanism of action?

1. antiemetic - indirect
2. cannabinoid agonist

34

what type of drug is dexamethasone? what is the mechanism of action?

1. antiemetic - indirect
2. glucocorticoid agonist

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