Flashcards in GI: Signs and symptoms of common abdo disorders Deck (16):
What is dyspepsia and what are the common causes?
Dyspepsia is upper abdo pain or bloating which is chronic or recurrent
Causes include peptic ulcers, GORD, malignancy, achalasia
What do you do for dyspepsia?
Empirical acid suppression
H pylori testing and eradication
Endoscopy and biopsy
Where does the pt feel pain if they have an ulcer?
Pain in epigastric region
Ulcers can erode through - get lots of bleeding a haematomesis
Where does the pt feel pain if they have pancreatitis?
Epigastric pain possibly with back pain (retroperitoneal structure)
Where does the pt feel pain if they have gallstones?
Epigastric pain, can also get RUG pain
How often is colicky pain in the small and large bowel?
Small bowel every 2-3mins
Large bowel every 10-15 mins
What is anorexia and what are the causes?
Anorexia is loss of appetite
Can be due to anxiety/fear, cancer, antibiotics, pregnancy, depression, endocrine disorders
What are some common causes of vomiting?
Food poisioning, gastroenteritis
Cholecystitis, appendicits, viral hep
Pancreatitis, intestinal blockage, pain
What are some common causes of constipation?
Diet, medications eg codeine phosphate
Dehydration, immobility, neurological disease eg stroke or diabetes
What are the different categories of diarrhoea?
Secretory - infection
Osmotic - lactose intolerance
Abnormal intestinal motility - IBS, thyrotoxicosis
Exudative - colitis, cancer
Malabsorption - insufficient enzymes or bile
What are the 2 broad categories of dysphagia?
Difficulty initiating swallow: harder to swallow liquids, neurological cause
Food sticking in the oesophagus: anatomical cause eg fibrous strictures from acid reflux, oesophageal cancer
What are some causes of haematemesis?
Gastric or oesophageal cancer
What are some causes of blood in the stool?
Diverticular disease, colonic carcinoma, haemorrhoids, crohns and UC, massive upper GI bleed (malaena)
What are the 5 causes of abdo distension?
What can cause ascites?
Liver failure - lower oncotic pressure
Portal hypertension - increase hydrostatic pressure