GI Sys.,Renal/Urologic Sys. & Psychosocial Flashcards Preview

Pathology and Medical Terminology > GI Sys.,Renal/Urologic Sys. & Psychosocial > Flashcards

Flashcards in GI Sys.,Renal/Urologic Sys. & Psychosocial Deck (71):
0

What is Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)?

Back-flow of stomach acid into the esophagus.

1

What can GERD cause?

Hiatal Hernia.

2

Define Hiatal Hernia.

The protrusion of an organ, typically the stomach, through the esophageal opening in the diaphragm.

3

Who is more likely to suffer from a hiatal hernia?

Women are more likely to get one than men.
Also people over 50yrs. or overweight are also more likely suffer from a Hiatal Hernia.

4

What is the treatment for a Hiatal hernia?

Only the symptoms can be treated.

In severe cases surgery can be an option for fixing the hiatal hernia.

5

Define Mallory-Weiss Syndrome.

Refers to bleeding from tears (a Mallory-Weiss tear) in the mucosa at the junction of the stomach and esophagus.

6

What are some symptoms of Mallory-Weiss Syndrome?

Vomiting blood
Blood in Stools

7

What is the treatment of Mallory-Weiss Syndrome?

Severe: Cauterization of the bleeding blood vessel.
Mild: Encourage behavior changes.

8

Define Scleroderma Esophagus.

Over production of collagen thickens in esophagus and becomes fibrotic.

9

What has been known to cause Scleroderma Esophagus?

Unusually slow movement of food through the digestive tract causing the lower sphincter to close which then causes reflux.

10

Define Adenocarcinoma.

A malignant tumor formed from glandular structures in epithelial tissue.

11

Define Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

A common form of skin cancer that develops in the thin, flat squamous cells that make up the outer layer of the skin.

12

Which Esophageal Cancer is the most common worldwide?

Squamous Cell Carcinoma

13

What are the two types of Esophageal Cancer?

Adenocarcinoma
Squamous Cell Carcinoma

14

What are the risk factors of Esophageal Cancer?

Excessive Alcohol use
Chronic Reflux
Diet low in fruits and veggies
Smoking or inhaling irritants
Being overweight
If a patient has undergone radiation to chest or abdomen.

15

Define the four stages of Esophageal Cancer.

Stage 1: Cancer only affects the superficial layers.
Stage 2: Cancer invades other layers(deeper) & may possibly reach lymph nodes
Stage 3: Cancer has spread to the deepest layers of the esophagus, has definitely reached the lymph nodes and possibly spread to surrounding organs
Stage 4: Cancer has spread throughout the body.

16

What are some causes of gastritis?

Excessive Alcohol use
Stress
Chronic Vomiting
Aspirin or Anti-inflammatory drugs
H-hyloria (Bacteria)
Pernicious Anemia (Stomach lacks substance that absorbs B12)
Reflux
Other infections from viruses and bacteria

17

What are some treatments for Gastritis?

Antacids
Avoid Hot and Spicy foods
Antibiotics (For H-hyloria or other bacterial infections)
Vit. B 12 Injection (For Pernicious Anemia)
Reduce Gluten Intake

18

What are peptic Ulcers?

Painful sores or ulcers in the lining of the stomach or first part of the small intestine.

19

What are some risk factors for Peptic Ulcers?

H-pylori Infection
NSAID Use
Family History
Excessive Alcohol use
Being over the age of 50yrs.

20

What are the risk factors for Gastric Cancer?

Diet low in fruits and veggies
Family History
Frequent Infections
Chronic Gastritis
History of Pernicious Anemia
Smoking

21

What are some symptoms of Gastric Cancer?

Fullness after small meals
Dark sticky stool
Diff. Swallowing
Frequent Belching
Loss of Appetite
Nausea
Vomiting Blood
Weakness and Fatigue
Weight Loss

22

What is the treatment for Gastric Cancer?

The only treatment is to have a surgery to remove the whole stomach.

23

Who is Pyloric Stenosis found in?

Only in babies!
Usually discovered around 3 weeks of age
Can be found as young as 1 week or as old as 5 months.

24

What is Pyloric Stenosis?

A narrowing of the pylorus (the opening from the stomach into the small intestines).

25

Define Intestinal Ischemia and Infarction.

Damage to (ischemia) or death of (infarction) part of the intestine due to a decrease in blood supply.

26

Define Irritable Bowel Syndrome.

A widespread condition involving recurrent abdominal pain and diarrhea or constipation

27

Define Diverticulitis.

Pockets that form in the colon.

28

Define polyps.

An extra piece of tissue that grows inside the body. Usually benign but can cause cancer.

29

What are the stages of cancer in the bowel?

Stage 1: Cancer is limited to the bowel wall
Stage 2: Cancer has moved through the wall into the membrane
Stage 3: Cancer has spread to the lymph nodes
Stage 4: Cancer has spread to the rest of the body

30

What is the treatment for cancer of the bowel?

Surgical removal of tumor
Chemo
Radiation (This may be used before surgery to shrink the size of the tumor)

31

Obstruction of the intestines can occur as a result of:

1 Organic Disease
2 Mechanical Obstruction
3 Functional Obstruction

32

Define appendicitis.

Infection of the appendix.

33

When is the common onset of appendicitis?

30yrs or younger However it can happen to anyone.

34

What is the cause of peritonitis?

Infection from bacteria or fungi

Left untreated it can spread quickly to the other organs.

35

What organs are affected by a UTI?

Mainly affects the bladder and urethra

However it can move up into the kidneys.

36

What are the tests or exams ran to diagnose Renal Cell Carcinoma?

Abdominal CT Scan
Blood Chemistry
Urine Test
Kidney Function Test
Renal Scan

37

What is the treatment for Renal Cell Carcinoma?

Remove all or part of the kidney & possibly the bladder, surrounding tissue and/or lymph nodes.

Chemo and Radiation is not effective for this type of cancer.

38

Who is more likely to be affected by Renal Cell Carcinoma?

It is more common in men than women especially Ages 50-70yrs.

39

Define Nephroblastoma (Wilms Tumor).

Cancer of the kidneys that typically occurs in children, rarely in adults.

40

What is the treatment for a Wilms Tumor?

Surgical removal no matter the stage that the cancer is in.

41

Define Renal Cysts.

A cavity filled with fluid.

42

What are the different types of Renal Cysts?

1- Polycystic Kidney Disease
2- Cystic Disease of the Renal Medulla
3- Acquired Cystic Disease (Is usually secondary to another disease)
4- Single Cysts
5- Cystic Renal Dysplasia
6- Miscellaneous Renal Cystic Disorders.

43

Define Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD).

The alteration of kidney function or structure for greater than or equal to 3 mos. duration.

44

Define Glomerulonephritis.

A type of kidney disease in which the part of the kidneys that helps filter waste and fluids from the blood is damaged.

45

What are some symptoms of Glomerulonephritis?

Blood in Urine
Foamy Urine
Swelling in face, around eyes, ankles and feet
Abdominal Pain
Cough
Shortness of breath
Excessive Urination
Malaise
Loss of Appetite
Joint/Muscle Aches

46

What is the treatment for Glomerulonephritiss?

Control of High BP
Meds to maintain BP as well as suppress immune system
Kidney transplant may be done

47

Define Nephrotic Syndrome.

A group of symptoms that include protein in the urine, low protein levels, high cholesterol levels, high triglyceride levels and swelling.

48

What are the different types of bladder cancers?

Transitional Cell Carcinoma (Most common Bladder Cancer in the US)
Squamous Cell Carcinoma (Rare in US)
Adenocarcinoma (Rare in US)

49

What are the stages of bladder cancer?

Stage 1- Occurs in the inner linings of the bladder but has not invaded the muscular wall
Stage 2- Cancer has invaded the muscular wall but is still contained in the bladder.
Stage 3- Spread to surrounding tissue (This includes the vagina for women and the prostate for men)
Stage 4- Cancer has spread to other parts of the body.

50

Define urinary retention.

The kidney produces urine but the bladder cannot empty itself.

51

Define Urinary Suppression.

Kidney is not producing urine but the bladder is able to empty itself.

52

Define Incontinence.

Involuntary loss of urine

53

Define Urge Incontinence.

The need to urinate come on so quickly that the person cannot make it to the bathroom in time.

54

Define Stress Incontinence.

When a person has a weak pelvic floor muscle.
The person urinates when they cough, sneeze or do anything strenuous.
(This is worse in women who have birthed many children. (gets worse with each pregnancy)

55

Define Overflow Incontinence.

The involuntary release of urine from an overly full urinary bladder, often in the absence of any urge to urinate.

56

Define Reflex Incontinence.

The loss of urine when the person is unaware of the need to urinate.

57

Define Neurogenic Bladder.

Lack of bladder control due to some form of brain damage.

Bladder is unable to relax or tighten at the right times.

58

Psychosocial means.

Relating to the interrelation of social factors and individual thought and behavior.

59

What is used to determine the classifications of a Psychiatric Diagnoses?

ICD 10
DSM 4

60

Define a Psychiatrist.

A Psychiatrist is a MD who can write scripts and diagnose mental disorders.

61

Define Psychologist.

A person who usually obtains a Masters or even a Doctorate and manly just studies mental disorders.

62

What are the four primary types of psychological Testing?

Clinical Interview/ Intake Interview
Assessment of Intellectual Functioning (IQ)
Personality Assessment
Behavior Assessment

63

What does a clinical interview consist of?

This is the core component of the assessment. This is when the doctor learns your history of physical and mental illnesses as well as your family's history.

64

What are the two types of Assessments of Intellectual Functioning?

Neuropsychological Assessment
IQ Test (Most commonly administered)

65

What are the types of objective tests for a personality assessment?

Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory
Million Clinical Multiaxial Inventory

66

What are the Projective tests used in a personality assessment?

Rorschach Inkblot Test
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
The Draw-a-Person test.

67

What are the two types of personality assessments?

Objective
Projective

68

How is a behavioral assessment completed?

The doctor or psychiatrist observes the patient in their own environment.

69

How many major diagnostic categories are there for mental health?

13

70

Name the major Diagnostic Categories for Mental Disorders.

Disorders usually first diagnosed in infancy, childhood or adolescence
Delirium, Dementia, Amnesia & other cognitive disorders
Substance-related disorders
Schizophrenia, and other psychotic disorders
Mood Disorders
Anxiety Disorders
Eating Disorders
Somatoform Disorders
Dissociative Disorders
Sexual and Gender Identity Disorders
Impulse-control disorders
Personality Disorders
Additional Disorders not covered by the other catagories