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Flashcards in GI SYSTEM AND DIABETES Deck (42):
1

functions of the GI tract

movement of food through the system
secretion: edocrine and exocrine
digestion
absorption
storage and elimination
immune barrier

2

endocrine secretion define

releasing into the blood stream

3

exocrine secretion define

releasing outside the body

4

list the organ components of the GI tract

oral cavity
pharynx
esophogus
stomach
small and large intestines

5

list the accessory organs of the GI tract

teeth
tounge
salivary glands
liver
gall bladder
pancreas

6

list the four major layers of the the GI wall

Mucosa
Submucosa
muscularis
Serosa

7

function of mucosa

absorption and secretion

8

function of submucosa

nerve plexus, supports the mucosa

9

function of muscularis

movement and contractions

10

function of serosa

bind and protect

11

what is the enzyme found in saliva?

amylase

12

list four functions of the stomach

storage of food
breaking down food
movement of chyme into small intestines
killing of bacteria

13

list four things that gastric pits release

HCL
pepsogen
gastrin
bicarbonate

14

what is the function of HCL in the stomach?

to break down food
kill bacteria
denatures proteins
converts pepsigen to pepsin

15

where does stomach HCl form?

the H+ and cl- combines and forms in the body's gastric glands

16

how is the stomach protected from HCL?

bicarbonate secretion, which neutralizes stomach acid
mucus layers
tight junctions

17

what can be digested and absorbed in the stomach?

alcohol and asprin and proteins

18

what makes the small intestines perfect for digestion?

long
many pilae
villi
microvilli

19

name different segments of the large intestines

acending
transverse
decending
sigmoid colon
rectum
anus

20

what gets absorbed in the large intestines?

water and electrolytes

21

what hormone stimulates salt and water reabsorption?

aldosterone

22

List 5 functions of the liver

detoxifcation
protien synthesis
secretion of bile
metabolize carbs
metabolize lipids

23

what does a hepatic portal vein do?

carry blood to the liver

24

where is albumin produced?

In the liver

25

name three enzymes produced by the liver

lipase
protease
amylase

26

where is bile produced and where is it stored?

produced in the liver
stored in the gallbladder

27

what is the product of amylase and starch

maltose

28

the stomach digests what and produces what?

the stomach produces pepsin to digest proteins to form polypeptides

29

the small intestines do what to proteins?

cleave polypeptides to form amino acids

30

where is lipase secreted?

the pancreas

31

where does the digestion and absportion of fat occur?

in the small intestines

32

what is the role of bile in lipid digestion?

bile surrounds and breaks down fats into smaller components and repackages so that it can be transfered better

33

Islets of Langerhans secret what hormones?

insulin and glucagon

34

exocrine function of the pancreas

excrete enzymes that break down lipids and proteins and carbs

35

endocrine functions of the pancreas

release hormones insulin and glucgon into the blood stream to control sugar levels

36

what is the difference between paracrine, endocrine and exocrine

paracrine: hormone only in the vicintiy
exocrine: secretion to the outside of the body or into ducts (sweat glands)
endocrine: secretion into the blood stream (ductless glands)

37

what is the function of glucagon

when sugar levels get too low, the body releases glucagon to break down glucose into useable sugars

38

what is the function of insulin

high blood sugar levels stimulates the release, which then lowers blood sugar amounts

39

define Glycogenesis

to convert glucose to glycogen

40

define glycogenolysis

reverse of glycogenisis
converts glycogen to glucose

41

define lipogenisis

convert glucose to triglycerides

42

Define Gluconeogenesis

generate glucose from non- carb molecules like fats