Flashcards in GI SYSTEM AND DIABETES Deck (42):
functions of the GI tract
movement of food through the system
secretion: edocrine and exocrine
storage and elimination
endocrine secretion define
releasing into the blood stream
exocrine secretion define
releasing outside the body
list the organ components of the GI tract
small and large intestines
list the accessory organs of the GI tract
list the four major layers of the the GI wall
function of mucosa
absorption and secretion
function of submucosa
nerve plexus, supports the mucosa
function of muscularis
movement and contractions
function of serosa
bind and protect
what is the enzyme found in saliva?
list four functions of the stomach
storage of food
breaking down food
movement of chyme into small intestines
killing of bacteria
list four things that gastric pits release
what is the function of HCL in the stomach?
to break down food
converts pepsigen to pepsin
where does stomach HCl form?
the H+ and cl- combines and forms in the body's gastric glands
how is the stomach protected from HCL?
bicarbonate secretion, which neutralizes stomach acid
what can be digested and absorbed in the stomach?
alcohol and asprin and proteins
what makes the small intestines perfect for digestion?
name different segments of the large intestines
what gets absorbed in the large intestines?
water and electrolytes
what hormone stimulates salt and water reabsorption?
List 5 functions of the liver
secretion of bile
what does a hepatic portal vein do?
carry blood to the liver
where is albumin produced?
In the liver
name three enzymes produced by the liver
where is bile produced and where is it stored?
produced in the liver
stored in the gallbladder
what is the product of amylase and starch
the stomach digests what and produces what?
the stomach produces pepsin to digest proteins to form polypeptides
the small intestines do what to proteins?
cleave polypeptides to form amino acids
where is lipase secreted?
where does the digestion and absportion of fat occur?
in the small intestines
what is the role of bile in lipid digestion?
bile surrounds and breaks down fats into smaller components and repackages so that it can be transfered better
Islets of Langerhans secret what hormones?
insulin and glucagon
exocrine function of the pancreas
excrete enzymes that break down lipids and proteins and carbs
endocrine functions of the pancreas
release hormones insulin and glucgon into the blood stream to control sugar levels
what is the difference between paracrine, endocrine and exocrine
paracrine: hormone only in the vicintiy
exocrine: secretion to the outside of the body or into ducts (sweat glands)
endocrine: secretion into the blood stream (ductless glands)
what is the function of glucagon
when sugar levels get too low, the body releases glucagon to break down glucose into useable sugars
what is the function of insulin
high blood sugar levels stimulates the release, which then lowers blood sugar amounts
to convert glucose to glycogen
reverse of glycogenisis
converts glycogen to glucose
convert glucose to triglycerides