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Reproductive System > Giving Birth > Flashcards

Flashcards in Giving Birth Deck (36):
1

define parturition

the changing from a pregnant state to a non pregnant state

2

define labour

the physiological process by which a baby is expelled from the uterus

3

define delivery

the method of expulsion of the foetus

4

what happens in the first stage of labour

there is the creation of the birth canal

5

what makes up the birth canal

bony part - pelvis
soft tissue part = cervix, vagina and perineum

6

what is the latent stage of labour

when there is slow cervical dilation and softening

7

what is the active stage of labour

faster rate of contractions and full cervical dilation occurs

8

what is cervical ripening

where the cervix becomes softer and shorter due to the break down of connective tissue and a larger amount of water present

9

what hormones contribute to cervical ripening

prostaglandins, oestrogen and relaxin

10

what is the role of prostaglandins in labour

they trigger cervical ripening and cause uterine contractions

11

what is the role of oxytocin in labour

initiates uterine contractions

12

where is oxytocin released from

the posterior pituitary gland

13

what does progesterone do in labour

inhibits contractions

14

what allows the levels of prostaglandins and oxytocin to rise

a fall in the progesterone levels

15

how may labour be induced

giving artificial prostaglandins
also give synthetic oxytocin or anti-progesterone agents

16

what happens to the uterine muscle after it contracts

it retracts so doesn't go back to its original size - this way the uterine muscle gradually becomes smaller

17

what methods can be used to help in labour

Caesarean section
forceps and vacuum extraction

18

what happens in stage 2 of labour

this is where the baby is expelled through the birth canal

19

what passive actions of the baby asset stage 2 of labour

the baby moves its head sideways to the transverse position

20

what active actions are there to move the baby in stage 2 of labour

uterine contractions rotate the head and shoulders

21

what is stage 3 of labour

expulsion of the placenta

22

what causes placenta expulsion

uterine contractions

23

what mechanism prevents postpartum haemorrhage

contraction of the uterus compresses the blood vessels to prevent blood flow

24

what causes milk production

suckling causes prolactin to be produced which causes milk production

25

what causes the release of breast milk

oxytocin

26

when is oxytocin produced

due to suckling, hearing a baby cry, seeing a baby

27

what inhibits oxytocin production

stress

28

what does oxytocin do

cause the myoepithelial cells surrounding the mammary glands to contract to release the breast milk

29

how does breast milk vary over time

firstly starts very watery then later on contains more iron and fats

30

what are the protective functions of breast milk

- lactoferrin prevents E.coli proliferation
- encourage normal flora development
- IgA passed on for passive immunity

31

what is the post partum period

the time between delivery and 6 weeks post natal

32

what is primary post partum haemorrhage

loss of 500ml of blood immediately after giving birth

33

what prevents post partum haemorrhage

contraction of the uterus to compress blood vessels and stop blood flow

34

what is sheehan's syndrome

a loss of blood and hypovolaemia following birth

35

what affect is there on the anterior pituitary gland with sheehan's syndrome

necrosis can occur as there is not enough blood supply

the anterior pituitary has increased in size so needs a increased blood supply
the blood supply isn't great anyway as it is through the portal system

36

what brachial plexus problems can occur during birth

Erb's palsy and Klumpke's palsy could occur