Glands, Hormones, Target Tissues WPP II Flashcards Preview

WPP II Final Exam > Glands, Hormones, Target Tissues WPP II > Flashcards

Flashcards in Glands, Hormones, Target Tissues WPP II Deck (50):
1

Gland that regulates metabolism

Thyroid

2

Hyperthyroidism TSH is Low or High?

Low

3

Hypothyroidism TSH is Low or High?

High

4

True or false: Thyroid needs Iodine?

True

5

RAIU is what?

Radio Active Iodine Uptake assessment

6

Best measure of thyroid function:
1) RAIU
2) TSH
3) Ultrasound
4) Fine needle biopsy

2) TSH

7

High level of antithyroglobulin (Thyroid Antibodies) may indicate what thyroid disease?

Hashimotos

8

True or False: Hashimoto's is an autoimmune form of hypothyroidism?

True

9

True of false: Iodine deficiency may cause Hyperthyroidism?

False: HYPOthyroidism

10

A normal free T4 and a TSH that is elevated Few or no clinical signs or symptoms of thyroid dysfunction.

Subclinical Hypothyroidism

11

True or False: MYXEDEMA COMA is from untreated Hypothyroidism?

True

12

Diagnosis of Hypothyroidism?

1) Elevated TSH levels
2) Decreased T4 / T3

13

THYROTOXICOSIS?

Hyperthyroidism

14

Graves Disease is Hypothyroid or Hyperthyroid?

Hyperthyroid

15

Grave’s Disease (autoimmune)
Toxic nodule
Toxic goiter

Causes of Hyperthyroidism
(Graves is most common cause)

16

True or False: Graves runs in families?

True

17

Symptoms of what disease?
1) Overactivity of the thyroid gland
2) Inflammation of the tissues around the eyes causing swelling, (exophthalmos )
3) Thickening of the skin over the lower legs.

Hyperthyroidism

18

Results of Thyroid scan (radioactive technetium or iodine) determine what?

“Hot” nodule (absorbing radioactive iodine) - usually benign.
“Cold” nodule (not absorbing radioactive iodine) - may be malignant.

19

Propylthiouracil (PTU)
Methimazole (Tapazole or MMI)

Anti-Thyroid drugs for Hyperthyroidism

20

True or False: Anti-thyroid medications are taken for life?

False: ATDs are d/c after 12-24 months. Hypothyroidism will probably occur after therapy (50% in 10 years). Pregnancy is contra-indicated

21

RADIOACTIVE IODINE THERAPY

Most widely used treatment for adults with thyrotoxicosis in the United States. I-131 is the isotope of choice

22

Thyroid Storm may be the initial presentation of what?

thyrotoxicosis

23

Most common thyroid disorder?

Thyroid Nodules

24

Q: Toxic Nodules or Solid Nodules?
surgery and iodine-131 (I-131) therapy

A: Toxic Nodules

25

Where are the adrenal glands?

Above the kidneys

26

Which part of the adrenal gland secretes Cortisol?

Cortex (virus the medulla or the capsule)

27

What does the adrenal gland secrete?

Cortisol, Androgens, Aldosterone

28

What are two regulators of the adrenal gland and which glands secret what?

Pituitary = ACTH (adrenocorticotrophic)
Hypothalamus = CRH (corticotropin)

29

Elevated cortisol has negative feedback on ACTH or CRH?

Both!

30

Name some causes of release of cortisol?

1. Stress
2. Small Tumor
3. Adrenal Tumor
4. Too much medicine

31

Negative biological effects of cortisol?

1. Insulin resistance
2. Liver glucose production
3. Protein catabolism
4. Inhibit bone formation
5. Tissue loss
6. Suppress inflammation

32

Name three catabolic functions of cortisol.. what does it break down?

1. Reduces protein synthesis
2. Facilitates protein to glucose
3. Halts tissue growth

33

Deleterious effects of cortisol include:

1. Muscle atrophy
2. Increased abdominal fat
3. Reduced glucose utilization
4. Impaired immunity
5. Reduced growth hormone, testosterone
6. Osteoporosis
7. Depression

34

In the ELEVATED 24 Hour Cortisol Dexamethasone Suppression test, if
CORTISOL LEVEL IS SUPPRESSED it shows:
a) Increased Pituitary ACTH production
b) Adrenal Problem (Tumor, prednisone)

a) Increased Pituitary ACTH production

35

In the DECREASED 24 Hour Cortisol ACTH Stimulation test, if CORTISOL LEVEL RISES it shows:
a) Normal adrenal function (pituitary problem)
b) Adrenal Problem

a) Normal adrenal function (pituitary problem)

36

True or False: Cushing's disease is a serious condition of an excess of the steroid hormone cortisol in the blood level caused by a pituitary tumor secreting adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)

True

37

All symptoms of what disease?
1) Central obesity
2) Moon face
3) Buffalo Hump
4) Hypertension
5) Stria - Stretch marks
6) Osteoporosis
7) Thin arms and legs
8) Diabetes Mellitus
9) Hirsutism

Cushings Disease

38

True or False: Exogenous cause of Cushing disease is due to too much cortisol due to meds. like asthma steroids?

True

39

Name three Endogenous causes of Cushings disease?

1) pituitary tumor
2) Ectopic ACTH
3) Adrenal Tumors

40

What test is performed to diagnose Cushings?

- 24 hour urinary free Cortisol test
- Dexamethasone Suppression test

41

TX of Cushings?

1. depends on cause
2. Surgery of tumors
3. Drug treatment to suppress adrenal gland

42

True or False: Addisons disease occurs when the adrenal glands produce too much cortisol?

False: not enough cortisol, adrenal insufficiency

43

Sx of Addisons?

Weight loss, darkening of skin, craving for salty foods, hypoglycemia.

44

More common type of Addison's:
1) Primary
2) Secondary
3) Temporary Secondary (stops prednisone)

2) Secondary, lack of ACTH

45

True or False: Primary adrenal insufficiency is an autoimmune disease that causes the immune system to make antibodies that attack the adrenal cortex.

True

46

What is Addison's Crisis?

Emergency. Life threatening. Severe adrenal insufficiency caused by insufficient levels of the hormone cortisol.

47

Sx of Addison's Crisis?

- Sudden abdominal pain
- dehydration
- low blood pressure
- loss of consciousness

48

Tx of adrenal insufficiency?

- hormone replacement
- Salt and Volume replacement (Salt craving)
- Glucose Low (need cortisol for producing glucose)

49

True or False: Cortisol can cause Diabetes?

True

50

True or false: Cortisol produces blood glucose?

True