Glaucoma Drugs Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Glaucoma Drugs Deck (41)
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1

- aqueous humor is produced by the ______ and drains via ______ and ______ outflow

what percentage is associated with each

- produced by ciliary body
- drains via trabecular (90%) and uveoscleral (10%) outflow

2

aqueous humor production is controlled by the _____ nervous system

- autonomic

3

which receptor stimulate production of aqueous humor

which inhibit it

- beta 1 and beta 2

- alpha 2

4

glaucomas often caused by an increase in _____ pressure

- intraocular

5

the imbalance between aqueous humor ____ and ______ increases ____ which leads to glaucoma


which one is typically reduced

- production
- outflow
- increases IOP

- aqueous humor outflow

6

most glaucomas are defined as either open angle or closed angle based on their effect on the angle between the ____ and _____

- in closed angle glaucoma, the angle is _____

- in open angle glaucoma, the angle is

- cornea and iris



- reduced

- unchanged

7

what happens in closed angle glaucoma

is it acute or chronic

- trabecular meshwork blocked by reduced angle

- acute emergency

8

what happens in open angle glaucoma


it is acute or chronic

- trabecular meshwork or canal of Schlemm blocked for another reason

- chronic

9

glaucoma drugs either ________ or _______ or both

- decrease aqueous humor production
- increase outflow

10

which drugs decrease aqueous humor production

- beta blockers
- carbonic anhydrase inhibitors
- alpha 2 agonists

11

which drugs increase aqueous humor outflow

- alpha 2 agonists
- prostaglandin analogs
- m3 agonists

12

activation of __ receptors on ciliary bodies stimulates aqueous humor production while activation of ___ receptors on ciliary bodies inhibits it

- beta 2 - stimulates production
- alpha 2 - inhibits production

13

which are the beta blocker glaucoma drugs

which receptors do they have an affinity for

- betaxolol (b1)
- carteolol (b1/2)
- timolol (b1/2)

14

which are the alpha 2 agonist glaucoma drugs

which receptors do they have an affinity for

- brimonidine (a2)
- aproclonidine (a1/a2)

15

_____ released from a presynaptic neuron stimulates beta 2 receptors on the cell of the ciliary body and promotes aqueous humor production

- norepinephrine

16

MOA of alpha 2 agonists in decreasing aqueous humor production in glaucoma


use in caution in patients with

- bind alpha 2 receptors
- inhibit release of NE from presynaptic neuron

- other antihypertensive drugs

17

MOA of beta blockers in glaucoma

- direct competitive antagonists of NE at beta 2 receptor

18

do not use beta blockers in patients with

- asthma/COPD (may inhibit bronchodilation)
- bradycardia/HF/arrhythmias (may reduce cardiac output or interfere with normal sinus rhythm)

19

toxicity of alpha 2 agonists is


similar to which drug

- blepharitis (inflammation of eyelid)
- dizziness, fatigue, somnolence

- clonidine

20

toxicity of aproclonidine (alpha 1 effect)

- mydriasis (alpha 1 controls dilator muscle)
- conjunctival blanching (vascular smooth muscle contraction)
- eyelid retraction (Muller's muscle contraction

21

aproclonidine is also useful in treating what condition

- ptosis

22

MOA of alpha 2 agonists in increasing aqueous humor outflow in glaucoma

- increase uveoscleral outflow

23

carbonic anhydrase inhibitors are used for which glaucomas

- open and closed angle

24

which drugs are carbonic anhydrase inhibitors

route of administration (oral/topical)

- acetazolamide (oral)
- brinzolamide (topical)

25

MOA of carbonic anhydrase inhibitors in glaucoma

- inhibit movement of water and Na+ into eye
- reduce production of aqueous humor

26

toxicities of topical carbonic anhydrase inhibitors

- ocular irritation
- transient myopia (near-sightedness)

27

toxicities of oral carbonic anhydrase inhibitors

- paresthesia
- frequent urination, metabolic acidosis

28

how can carbonic anhydrase inhibitors cause frequent urination

- also diuretics
- increase excretion of Na+ and water in PCT

29

how can carbonic anhydrase inhibitors cause metabolic acidosis

- disrupt normal production of bicarbonate in kidney

30

which drugs for glaucoma are prostaglandin analogs

- bimatoprost
- latanoprost