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Flashcards in Global Climate Systems And Patterns Deck (11):

What are the temporal variations in the heat budget

1 diurnal variation ( daily)
- intensity of sunlight
2 the seasons
-winter heat deflect, summer it surpluses
3 climate oscillation
-interaction with water cycle and atmospheric circulation
4 climate change


Spatial variations of the heat budget

1) curvature of the earth
- energy at the equator is more concentrated
-more refelction at higher latitudes due to more atmosphere

2) aspect
-southern facing slopes in northern hemi faces sun
-northern facing slopes in southern hemi faces sun

-low air pressure means less greenhouse gases, therefore less capacity to retain heat
-the lapse rate for calm dry air is 6.5•C for every 1000m raise

4) albedo
-dark colours (the ocean) absorb more light but can generate more heat
-the rate of reflection going from 1 for perfectly white to 10 for perfectly black

5) ocean currents
-regulates the earths temperature by moving hear away from the equator via the thermohaline circulation called the great ocean converyer


What are the stages of the hydrological cycle

1) evaporation
-water into air

2) condensation
-water vapour is changed into water droplets

3) advection
-horizontal movement of moisture bearing air masses by wind systems

4) precipitation

5) transpiration
-evaporation of water from special pores found on plants

6 a) runoff
6b) infiltration


Temporal variations in the hydrological cycle

1) climate variability
-eg periods of long rain or no rain

2) time of day

-precipitation occurs during night
-drizzely fog and rainfall at sunrise
-location that have summer rainfall, it occurs mid afternoon
-diurnal variations of percipitation is pargest during summer months

3) seasonal variations in precipitation
-shift in air pressure and systems

4) climate change

- changes seasonal pattern


Spatial variations in the hydrological cycle

1) heat budget
- more heat=more evaporation

2) atmospheric circulation
-low pressure zones bring more precipitation

3) landforms
-mountains have significant local influence on precipitation, infiltration and runoff

4) land and sea
-inland receive less rainfall than coastal

5) soil
-affect infiltration with sandy allowing a lot more than clay


Temporal variations in atmospheric circulation

-rotation of the earth moves thermal equator

2) climate variability
-changes number of extreme weather events

3)climate change
-warming is greater at poles, moving thermal equator further south and north
-decreasing pressure changing precipitation and weather events


Spatial variations in atmospheric circulation

1) altitude
-lower altitude, lower pressure
-moves jet streams

- pressure system

3) land and sea differences
-low pressure areas above US and Asia due to more terrestrial radiation in summer


Temporal variations in the carbon cycle

1) seasonal variations
-lowest levels of CO2 in july due to plant growth in northern hemoisphere
- wildfire increases CO2
-volcanic increases CO2

2) climate change
- CO2 levels have increases 20-40% in the last 300 years
-predicted 20% rise by 2050
-melting permafrost


Spatial variations in the carbon cycle

1) atmospheric carbon distribution
-higher levels of CO2 above industrial areas

2) terrestrial carbon distribution
-the more biomass the more carbon


Hadley cell steps

1) warm air rises
2)condensation and heavy precipitation
3) as air falls it warms
-high high pressure
-where you find desserts
4) warm air try's to equalise pressure


What is the heat budget?

A heat budget is the perfect balance between incoming heat absorbed by earth and outgoing heat escaping it in the form of radiation. If the balance is disturbed, then earth would get progressively warmer or cooler with each passing year