Global Health - Infectious disease / AIDS - history and progression Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Global Health - Infectious disease / AIDS - history and progression Deck (15):
1

Epidemiology

Based on ability to quantify the occurrence of a disease in a population.

2

Case

Person who has the disease, health disorders, or suffers the event of interest.

3

Prevalence

Frequency of a disease in a population at a point in time. Often referred to as point prevalence.

Prevalence is a proportion. It is the only measure of disease occurrence that can be obtained from cross sectional studies. It measures the burden of disease in a population. Prevalence measures status (a condition: a subject affected by a specific disease).

4

Incidence

The number of new cases of a disease within a specified time interval. Incidence measures events (a change from a healthy state to a diseased state).
This measure of incidence can be interpreted as the probability, or risk, that an individual will develop the disease during a specific time period

5

Difference between incidence and prevalence

Incidence measures new cases while prevalence measures all, cases new and old. The prevalence is dependent upon the number of new cases (incidence), and the time that they remain cases before they die or recover (duration of disease). Individuals only leave the “pool” of prevalent cases when they recover or die.

6

Mortality

The number of deaths attributed to a specific condition in a given time period.

7

Morbidity

The number of cases of ill health, complications side effects attributed to a particular condition over a paricular time period.

8

Difference between mortality and morbidity

Morbidity refers to the state of being diseased or unhealthy within a population. Morbidity refers an incidence of ill health in a population
Mortality is the term used for the number of people who died within a population. Mortality refers to the incidence of death or the number of deaths in a population.

9

Units of measuring morbidity

Morbidity scores or predicted morbidity are assigned to ill patients with the help of systems such as the APACHE II, SAPS II and III, Glasgow Coma scale, PIM2, and SOFA. Morbidity scores help decide the kind of treatment or medicine that should be given to the patient.

10

Epidemiology of infectious diseases

Burden of infectious disease: More than 90% of deaths from infectious diseases are caused by a handful of diseases: lower respiratory infections, HIV/AIDS, diarrhoeal diseases, tuberculosis, malaria and measles. Most notably, infectious diseases are the leading cause of death in sub-Saharan Africa.

4 of the 10 leading causes of death are infectious diseases in low- and middle-income countries, 9 of the 10 leading causes are non-communicable diseases in high-income countries

11

Predicted morbidity

Predicted morbidity describes the morbidity of patients, and is also useful when comparing two sets of patients or different time points in hospitals.

12

Mortality rates

Mortality rates are generally expressed as the number of deaths per 1000 individuals per year.

13

Death rates

Vary depending on country.
The highest death rate according to statistics obtained by the CIA World Factbook (2009) has been reported for Swaziland at 30.83 deaths/1000 persons, followed by countries like Angola, Lesotho, Sierra Leone and Zambia. The leading causes of death are heart diseases, cerebro-vascular disease, respiratory infections, HIV/AIDS, COPD, and others. In third world countries, however, 58% of the mortality reported was due to malnutrition or deficiencies.

14

Assessing a country's health system

Measuring how many people die each year and why they have died is one of the most important means – along with gauging how various diseases and injuries are affecting the living – of assessing the effectiveness of a country’s health system.
Having those numbers helps health authorities determine whether they are focusing on the right kinds of public health actions that will reduce the number of preventable deaths and disease. Globally, around 57 million people die each year. Almost 15% of these deaths occur in children under the age of 5. Most of these preventable deaths in children occur in low- and middle-income countries.

15

Success in fight against AIDS

very broad access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV that has been achieved in poor countries.

unfortunately, we cannot treat our way out of this epidemic. For every person put on HIV treatment today, five are newly infected with HIV.