Flashcards in Globalisation, Modernity And Postmodernity Deck (25)
Identify some characteristics of modern society
The nation-state, capitalism and individualism
What are the 4 changes that have helped bring about globalisation?
Technological changes, economic changes, political changes and changes in culture and identity
What is postmodernism?
It is a major intellectual movement that has emerged since the 1970s
What is postmodernism characterised by?
Instability, fragmentation and media saturated and image and reality are indistinguishable
What is 'anti-foundationalism'?
No true foundations to knowledge
What are the two consequences of 'anti-foundationalism'?
Enlightenment of achieving progress through true, scientific knowledge is dead and Any theory is just a meta-narrative - they are somebody's view but not the truth
What does Lyotard believe about language?
He says that knowledge is just a series of language games
Identify the 2 terms developed by Baudrillard
Simulcra and Hyper-reality
What concept does simulcra refer to?
That signs stand for nothing themselves - news about soap operas are signs about signs rather than about an underlying reality (hyper-reality)
What makes culture, identity and politics different in postmodern society?
The role of the media in creating hyper-reality which causes culture to become fragmented and unstable so there is no longer a fixed view
Give 2 strengths of postmodernism as a theory
It acknowledges the importance of the media in today's society and it rejects all-embracing meta-narrative which is valuable
What are Philo and Millers criticisms of postmodernism
It ignores power and inequality, We can't freely construct our identities through consumption as it overlooks the effect of poverty, It is wrong to claim people can't find reality and It can't assume that all views are right
What do theories of late modernity argue about social changes?
They argue that rapid changes are not the signs of postmodernity but of late modernity and that everything is going a little fast
What are Giddens' beliefs about reflexivity?
He believes that rapid change is the result of reflexivity where tradition and custom have become much less important and are not guides as to how we should act so 'we need to change our actions according to need'
According to Beck, the late modern society is a 'risk society' that faces new dangers. How do today's dangers compare to dangers of the past?
In the past, society faced dangers as the result of its inability to control nature but today, the dangers we face are manufactured risks resulting from human activities such as global warming
How does Mark Rustin criticise theories of late modernity?
He argues that capitalism is the source of risk, not technology
Marxists such as Harvey & Jameson believe that modernity has moved on. In what ways do they believe society has changed?
They believe that flexible accumulation has occurred which is a new way of achieving profitability or post Fordism and there have also been political changes
What sort of world does Kenichi Ohmae believe we now live in?
He argues that we now live in a 'borderless world' in which transnational companies and consumers have more economic power than national governments
The increasing interconnectedness of people across national boundaries
What do sociologists argue we now live in due to globalisation?
A global village
Who sees late modernity as a period of growing individualisation?
What sort of perspective do Harvey and Jameson take in their explanation of postmodernism?
A Marxist theory
How do Jameson and Harvey agree with postmodernists?
They agree that there have been major changes in society, and they describe postmodern culture in similar terms, emphasising the importance of media images, diversity and instability
What do Marxists regard postmodernity to be a product of?
The most recent stage of capitalism