Globalisation, transnationalism, mobility (CLARKE) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Globalisation, transnationalism, mobility (CLARKE) Deck (39):
1

What is time space compression?

The set of processes that cause the relative distances between places (i.e., as measured in terms of travel time or cost) to contract, effectively making such places grow “closer" (the idea of a “shrinking world”).
(Harvey 1989: 241)

2

What is time-space distanciation?

Describes the process whereby remote interaction has become an increasingly significant feature of human life, and through which social systems that were previously distinctive have become connected and interdependent.
(Giddens 1990)

3

Giddens 1990?

13th century
- Mechanical clock- prior to invention-> impossible to coordinate timing other than locally.
-Symbolic tokens (money)
- Expert systems

4

Harvey 1989?

- over accumulation- struggling to find good investment prospects locally
- rise of capitalism
- spatial fixes (exportation)
- multiple rounds of tsc

5

Spatial fix meaning

The movement of production from one site to another based on the place-based cost advantages of the new site.

6

Define transnationalism

Cross border activities of great volume, regularity, spatial scope and social scope.

7

Causes of transnationalism

Technologies
Expert systems
Spatial fixes
Transmigration (staying 'in touch') that is circular and incomplete.

8

Consequences of transnationalism

Multiculturalism
Flexible citizenship
Flows of ideas
Money remittances

9

Whats a global citizen?

Global citizen is someone who identifies with being part of an emerging world community and whose actions contribute to building this community's values and practices.”

10

Buraway et al, 2000 (ethnocentrism)

Globalisation talk signifies...

Globalisation talk signifies...the privileged lifestyles of high flying academics.

11

Ethnocentrism

evaluation of other cultures according to preconceptions originating in the standards and customs of one's own culture.

12

Massey, 1993 (ethnocentrism)

Different social groups have distinct...

Different social groups have distinct...relationships to this...some are more in charge of [mobility] than others; some indicate flows and movement; some don't; some are more on the receiving end of it than others; some are effectively imprisoned by it.

13

What is mobility?

The large-scale movements of people, objects, capital
and information across the world, as well as the more local processes of daily transportation, movement through public space and the travel of material things within everyday life.

14

Brenner, 2004

Mobilities hasn't caused absolute territorialization of societies, nor their complete deterritorialization
into a supraterritorial, distanceless, placeless, or borderless space of flows.

Instead...tangled and superimposed societies.

15

Globalisation talk signifies...the privileged lifestyles of high flying academics.

Buraway et al, 2000 (ethnocentrism)

Globalisation talk signifies...

16

Different social groups have distinct...relationships to this...some are more in charge of [mobility] than others; some indicate flows and movement; some don't; some are more on the receiving end of it than others; some are effectively imprisoned by it.

Massey, 1993 (ethnocentrism)

Different social groups have distinct...

17

Mobilities hasn't caused absolute territorialization of societies, nor their complete deterritorialization
into a supraterritorial, distanceless, placeless, or borderless space of flows.

Instead...tangled and superimposed societies.

Brenner, 2004

18

Pro-globalisation

The spread of market economies, competition, free trade and western democracy are important progressive trends.
WB, IMF and most national governments, especially large capitalist economies such UK and USA agree.

19

Chilean Winter

Wave of very large protests by Chilean students in 2010/11.
Injustice of contemporary educational system- available to all but of variable quality.

20

Define globalisation

Globalisation is the increased communication, transportation of goods, services, people and ideas around the world.

21

Globalisation in the economic sphere

Globalised financial sector.
Coordinated through a number of world cities.
Economic change in one region can be instantly transmitted to another.

22

Globalisation in the cultural sphere

Wherever you go in the world and tune into commercial radio, certain artists will be heard everywhere

23

Geography is dead...?

Time-space compression renders distance unimportant.
Locality has less meaning since we live in a global village.
Difference is declining and culture homogenising.

24

Geography is reborn...?

Place, space, locality and the relative distance between things now more important.
TNCs choose to locate due to a complex mixture of local characteristics.

25

Wallerstein (1980)

World systems theory- a world economic system in which some countries benefit while others are exploited.
Capitalist mode of production would supersede others as it expanded across the globe.
Co-existence of different systems remains.

26

Marx

Industrial class in search for profits and extraction of surplus from working class would expand geographical horizons drawing peripheral countries in to provide cheap labour and raw materials.

27

The sceptics

Question very existence of globalisation

Further marginalise peripheral and make it harder for semi-peripheral to compete.

28

The transformationalists

Globalisation is real and restructuring society profoundly
Constructed by human outcome

Global capitalist system forges increased uneveness.

Globalisation is open ended and unorthodox.

29

Neoliberal hyperglobalists argue that...

The rise of the global free trade market, while creating losers, makes everybody better off in the long run and will eventually create a homogeneous affluent and modern society.

30

World as mosaic

Concept sees world as resembling a jigsaw puzzle with different localities juxtaposed but independent.

World of borders:
- North/ South Korea
- USA/ Mexico

31

World as system

Argued that local outcomes are produced through the particular location of the place within the broader global system at that point in time (Europe as the coloniser, Africa as colonised).

32

World as network

Divides history into two periods:
Industrial age
Information age

33

What is mercantilism? 1450-1880

The view that maximising net exports is the best route to national prosperity.
Led to some localities specialising in production and distribution of particular items based on comparative advantage.

34

What was industrial expansion (1780-1900) stimulated by?

Stimulated by availability of cheap labour force based on increased rural to urban migration, efficiency gains and surplus in agriculture.

35

What are economies of scale?

Economies of scale occur when increasing output leads to lower long run average costs.

36

Give some examples of how technology changed the world

- Cell phones
- Cameras
- Computers

Fixed nature of books vs accessibility granted by google

60 years ago air journey from UK to Australia would take a week.

In 1870 it took 70 days for surface mail to travel from London to New Zealand.

37

Time-space compression (Harvey, 1989)

'Far off places' have instant 'local' impacts

e.g credit crunch in USA in 2007 led to global financial crisis of 2008/9

24 hrs news reporters such as BBC available all over the world.

Environmental- CO2 in USA- sea level rise and cyclones.

38

The relative distance between some places and people has become greater.

Majority who do not have access to new technologies have become relatively more isolated.

39

References to use...

Harvey 1989
Giddens 1990
Buraway et al, 2000
Massey, 1993
Brenner, 2004
Wallerstein (1980)