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Flashcards in Glossary/Index Deck (133):
1

What is abstraction?

Picking out the important bits of information

2

What is an active attack?

A network attack where the hacker attempts to change data of introduce malware

3

What is adware?

A type of malware which displays unwanted pop-up advertisements on a computer

4

What is an algorithm?

A step-by-step set of rules or instructions

5

What is algorithmic thinking

Coming up with an algorithm to solve a problem

6

What is alphanumeric?

The collective name for letters, digits and symbols

7

What is an analogue signal?

A continuous signal which can’t be processed by a computer

8

What is anti-malware software?

Software designed to stop malware from entering the computer

9

What is application software?

A piece if software written to help users do various tasks, often through GUI with menus and toolbars

10

What is an application layer?

One of the layers in the TCP/IP network protocol

11

What is architecture?

Describes how the CPU works and interacts with other parts of the computer system

12

What is an argument?

A value that a parameter of a subroutine actually takes

13

What is the arithmetic logic unit?

(ALU)
The part of the CPU that carries out arithmetic and Boolean operations

14

What is an arithmetic operator?

An operator that programs use to carry out simple arithmetic operations

15

What is an array?

A data structure data values of the same type are stored and defined under one variable name

16

What is ASCII?

A 7-bit (or 8-bit) character set consisting of 128 characters

17

What is an assembler?

A program that turns assembly language into machine code

18

Is assembly language a high-level language or a low-level language?

Low-level language

19

What does the assignment operator (

Assigns the value on the right hand side to the named value on the left hand side

20

What is authentication?

A process of checking the identity of the user

21

What are automatic software updates?

A method of keeping software up-to-date so that any security holes can be removed

22

What us backup utility?

A type of utility software that creates a copy of a systems files and settings to be restored in the event of data loss

23

What is bandwidth?

The amount of data that can be transferred in a network in a given time

24

What is binary?

A counting system using base-2 consisting of 0s an 1s

25

What is binary shifting?

Moving the bits in a binary number left or right and filling the gaps with 0s

26

What are biometric measures?

Ways of authenticating someone’s identity using unique parts of their body, such as fingerprints or retinas

27

What is BIOS?

Basic Input Output System
Software that is stored in ROM responsible for booting up a computer

28

What is a bit?

A binary digit, either 0 or 1

29

What is a bitmap image?

A graphic that is made up of pixels

30

What is bit rate?

The number of bits per second of a sampled audio

31

What is black box penetration testing?

A form of penetration testing where the tester is not given any credentials. Used to stimulate an external cyber attack

32

What is blagging?

Using an invented scenario to persuade someone to share information, or do something that they normally wouldn’t do.

33

What is Bluetooth?

A common shirt-range wireless technology, often used in PANs

34

What is Boolean?

An logical system using the operators OR, AND and NOT. Boolean data can take one of two values, either true or false

35

What is boundary data?

Test data on the boundary of what the program will accept

36

What is brute force attack?

A network attack that uses software to crack security passwords through trial and error

37

What is a bus?

A collection of wires that carry data, instructions and addresses between components of the CPU

38

What is bus topology?

A network topology in london devices are connected to a single backbone cable

39

What is a byte?

8 bits

40

What is cache?

Quick access memory inside the CPU

41

What is CAPTCHA?

Completely Automated Turing tests to tell Computers and Humans Apart. Used to prevent software from automatically doing things like creating user accounts on a website

42

What is a CASE statement?

A type of selection statement

43

What is casting?

A way of changing from one data type to another

44

What is a CAT 5e/6 cable?

Standards for copper and Ethernet cables used on LANs

45

What is censorship?

The control (usually by the government or other organisations) if what information other people can access

46

What is a channel (Wi-Fi)?

A small range of Wi-Fi frequencies

47

What is a character?

A single alphanumeric symbol

48

What is a character set?

A group of characters that a computer recognises from their binary representation

49

What is ‘checksum’?

A number used to check if a packet of data sent between networks has been correctly received

50

What is the clock?

A part of the CPU that sends out signals for the instructions to synchronise to

51

What it the clock speed?

The number of clock cycles per second. Determines the number of instructions a processor can carry out per second. Measured in Hertz (Hz)

52

What is cloud storage?

An online service where users can upload files to remote services

53

What is a coaxial cable?

A type of copper cable with a low bandwidth but low cost

54

What is colour depth?

The number of bits used fo each pixel in an image file

55

What is a comment (in programming)?

A note added to source code to say what part of a program does

56

What is a comparison operator?

Compares two values and outputs either true of false

57

What is a compiled code?

An executable file created by a compiler

58

What is a compiler?

A programming tool used to translate source code into machine code

59

What is compression?

Making the size of a file smaller

60

What is computational thinking?

Tackling a problem through decomposition, abstraction and algorithmic thinking

61

What is concatenation?

Joining strings-together

62

What is a condition-controlled loop

An indefinite iteration statement that repeats a set of instructions until a condition is met

63

What is a constant?

A named value which cannot be altered as the program is running

64

What is the control unit (CU)?

The part of the CPU that controls the flow of data

65

What is copyright?

A legal right that prevents others from copying or modifying work without permission from the owner

66

What is the core (in the CPU)?

A processing unit found inside the CPU

67

What is a count-controlled loop?

A definite iteration statement that repeats a set of instructions a given number of times

68

What is the CPU?

The part of the computer system that processes the data. It contains the control unit, ALU, cache, clock and buses

69

What is cracking?

Illegally modifying software to remove unwanted features

70

What is Creative Commons Licence?

A licence which permits sharing of a creative work as long as certain requests from the original creator are upheld

71

What is cyber bullying?

Using social media to deliberately harm someone else

72

What us cybe crime?

A term for any illegal activity involving computers

73

What is cyber security?

Protecting networks, data, programs, and computers from unauthorised access and/or cyber attacks

74

What is decimal?

A number system using base-10. Also known as denary

75

What is decomposition?

Breaking a problem down into further steps

76

What is a dedicated system?

A computer system designed to carry out a specific task

77

What is definite iteration?

A type of iteration statement that repeats a fixed number if times

78

What is defragmentation?

Reorganising data on a hard drive to put broken up files back together and collect up the free space

79

What us denial-of-service attack?

A network attack which stops users from accessing a part of a network or website

80

What is a device driver?

A piece of software that allows applications to communicate with a piece of hardware

81

What is a digital divide?

The inequality created by the fact that some people have greater access to technology than others

82

What is digital signal?

The representation if an analogue signal using binary data

83

What is disk health utility?

A piece of system software that checks a disk for problems

84

What is disk management?

Organisation and maintenance of the hard disk

85

What is a dongle?

A small piece of hardware that allows devices to connect to a network wirelessly

86

What is a DO-WHILE loop?

A type of indefinite iteration statement

87

What is DRM?

(Digital Rights Management)
A feature implemented in software to prevent unauthorised usage. Includes things like activation keys and online authentication

88

What is an ELSE-IF statement?

A type of selection statement

89

What is email confirmation?

A way of checking that the email address a person uses to register for something is real and belongs to them

90

What is an embedded system?

A computer built into another device

91

What is encryption?

Coding data so that it can only be decoded with the correct key

92

What is an environmental issue?

An issue relating to how we impact the natural world

93

What is erroneous data

Test data that a program isn’t designed to accept

94

What is Ethernet?

A family of network protocols used on wired LANs

95

What is an ethical issue?

Something which raises questions of right and wrong

96

What is E-waste?

Discarded computer material

97

What is extended ASCII

An 8-bit character set consisting on 256 characters

98

What is extreme data?

Test data on the boundary if what the program will accept

99

What is the fetch-decode-execute cycle?

The process that the CPU uses to retrieve and execute instructions

100

What is a fibre-optic cable?

A high performance cable that is uses light to carry data

101

What is a field?

An element of a record used to store one piece of data

102

What is file handling?

Reading from and writing to external file

103

What is file management?

The organisation, movement and deletion of files

104

What is file sharing?

Copying files between devices over a network

105

What is a firewall?

A type of anti-malware software that examines data entering a network and blocks potential threats

106

What is firmware?

Permanent software stored on ROM, used to control hardware or embedded system

107

What is flash memory?

Solid state non-volatile data storage

108

What is a flowchart?

A graphical way of showing an algorithm

109

What is a FOR loop?

A type of definite iteration statement

110

What is a frame?

A unit of data sent over the link layer of the TCP/IP

111

What is FTP?

(File Transfer Protocol)
A protocol used to access, edit and move files on another device, like a server

112

What is a function?

A subroutine that carries out instructions and returns a value

113

How many Megabytes are in a gigabyte?

1000 megabytes

114

What is a global variable?

A variable throughout the whole program

115

What is GPU?

Graphics Processing Unit
A circuit for handling the processing of graphics and images

116

What is GUI?

Graphic User Interface
Allows the user to interact with the computer in a visual and intuitive way

117

What is a graphics card?

A piece of hardware containing a GPU

118

What is a hacker?

A person who tries to access or attack a computer network or device by exploiting weaknesses in its security

119

What is a hard disk drive?

(HDD)
Traditional internal storage for PCs and laptops that storesdafa magnetically

120

What is hardware?

The physical parts of a computer system

121

What is a heat sink?

A component in a computer which pulls heat away from the CPU to help maintain its temperature

122

What is hexadecimal?

A counting system using base-16 consisting of digits 0-9 and the letters A-F

123

What is high level-language?

A programming language like C++ and Java that is easy for humans to understand

124

What is a hotspot?

A location where people can access a wireless access point

125

What is HTTP?

Hyper Text Transfer Protocol
A protocol used by web browsers to access websites and communicate with web servers

126

What is HTTPS?

HTTP Secure
A version of HTTP that encrypts data

127

What is Huffman coding?

A type of lossless compression that assigns codes of varying length to data based on its frequency

128

What is an IF statement?

A type is selection statement

129

What is image resolution?

The number of pixels in an image

130

What is IMAP?

Internet Message Access Protocol
A protocol used to retrieve emails from a server

131

What is indefinite iteration?

A type of iteration statement where the number of times it repeats depends on a condition

132

What is indentation?

Spaces put at the beginning of lines of help show a program’s structure

133

What is input validation?

Checking that an input meets certain criteria