Flashcards in Glossary/Index Deck (133):
What is abstraction?
Picking out the important bits of information
What is an active attack?
A network attack where the hacker attempts to change data of introduce malware
What is adware?
A type of malware which displays unwanted pop-up advertisements on a computer
What is an algorithm?
A step-by-step set of rules or instructions
What is algorithmic thinking
Coming up with an algorithm to solve a problem
What is alphanumeric?
The collective name for letters, digits and symbols
What is an analogue signal?
A continuous signal which can’t be processed by a computer
What is anti-malware software?
Software designed to stop malware from entering the computer
What is application software?
A piece if software written to help users do various tasks, often through GUI with menus and toolbars
What is an application layer?
One of the layers in the TCP/IP network protocol
What is architecture?
Describes how the CPU works and interacts with other parts of the computer system
What is an argument?
A value that a parameter of a subroutine actually takes
What is the arithmetic logic unit?
The part of the CPU that carries out arithmetic and Boolean operations
What is an arithmetic operator?
An operator that programs use to carry out simple arithmetic operations
What is an array?
A data structure data values of the same type are stored and defined under one variable name
What is ASCII?
A 7-bit (or 8-bit) character set consisting of 128 characters
What is an assembler?
A program that turns assembly language into machine code
Is assembly language a high-level language or a low-level language?
What does the assignment operator (
Assigns the value on the right hand side to the named value on the left hand side
What is authentication?
A process of checking the identity of the user
What are automatic software updates?
A method of keeping software up-to-date so that any security holes can be removed
What us backup utility?
A type of utility software that creates a copy of a systems files and settings to be restored in the event of data loss
What is bandwidth?
The amount of data that can be transferred in a network in a given time
What is binary?
A counting system using base-2 consisting of 0s an 1s
What is binary shifting?
Moving the bits in a binary number left or right and filling the gaps with 0s
What are biometric measures?
Ways of authenticating someone’s identity using unique parts of their body, such as fingerprints or retinas
What is BIOS?
Basic Input Output System
Software that is stored in ROM responsible for booting up a computer
What is a bit?
A binary digit, either 0 or 1
What is a bitmap image?
A graphic that is made up of pixels
What is bit rate?
The number of bits per second of a sampled audio
What is black box penetration testing?
A form of penetration testing where the tester is not given any credentials. Used to stimulate an external cyber attack
What is blagging?
Using an invented scenario to persuade someone to share information, or do something that they normally wouldn’t do.
What is Bluetooth?
A common shirt-range wireless technology, often used in PANs
What is Boolean?
An logical system using the operators OR, AND and NOT. Boolean data can take one of two values, either true or false
What is boundary data?
Test data on the boundary of what the program will accept
What is brute force attack?
A network attack that uses software to crack security passwords through trial and error
What is a bus?
A collection of wires that carry data, instructions and addresses between components of the CPU
What is bus topology?
A network topology in london devices are connected to a single backbone cable
What is a byte?
What is cache?
Quick access memory inside the CPU
What is CAPTCHA?
Completely Automated Turing tests to tell Computers and Humans Apart. Used to prevent software from automatically doing things like creating user accounts on a website
What is a CASE statement?
A type of selection statement
What is casting?
A way of changing from one data type to another
What is a CAT 5e/6 cable?
Standards for copper and Ethernet cables used on LANs
What is censorship?
The control (usually by the government or other organisations) if what information other people can access
What is a channel (Wi-Fi)?
A small range of Wi-Fi frequencies
What is a character?
A single alphanumeric symbol
What is a character set?
A group of characters that a computer recognises from their binary representation
What is ‘checksum’?
A number used to check if a packet of data sent between networks has been correctly received
What is the clock?
A part of the CPU that sends out signals for the instructions to synchronise to
What it the clock speed?
The number of clock cycles per second. Determines the number of instructions a processor can carry out per second. Measured in Hertz (Hz)
What is cloud storage?
An online service where users can upload files to remote services
What is a coaxial cable?
A type of copper cable with a low bandwidth but low cost
What is colour depth?
The number of bits used fo each pixel in an image file
What is a comment (in programming)?
A note added to source code to say what part of a program does
What is a comparison operator?
Compares two values and outputs either true of false
What is a compiled code?
An executable file created by a compiler
What is a compiler?
A programming tool used to translate source code into machine code
What is compression?
Making the size of a file smaller
What is computational thinking?
Tackling a problem through decomposition, abstraction and algorithmic thinking
What is concatenation?
What is a condition-controlled loop
An indefinite iteration statement that repeats a set of instructions until a condition is met
What is a constant?
A named value which cannot be altered as the program is running
What is the control unit (CU)?
The part of the CPU that controls the flow of data
What is copyright?
A legal right that prevents others from copying or modifying work without permission from the owner
What is the core (in the CPU)?
A processing unit found inside the CPU
What is a count-controlled loop?
A definite iteration statement that repeats a set of instructions a given number of times
What is the CPU?
The part of the computer system that processes the data. It contains the control unit, ALU, cache, clock and buses
What is cracking?
Illegally modifying software to remove unwanted features
What is Creative Commons Licence?
A licence which permits sharing of a creative work as long as certain requests from the original creator are upheld
What is cyber bullying?
Using social media to deliberately harm someone else
What us cybe crime?
A term for any illegal activity involving computers
What is cyber security?
Protecting networks, data, programs, and computers from unauthorised access and/or cyber attacks
What is decimal?
A number system using base-10. Also known as denary
What is decomposition?
Breaking a problem down into further steps
What is a dedicated system?
A computer system designed to carry out a specific task
What is definite iteration?
A type of iteration statement that repeats a fixed number if times
What is defragmentation?
Reorganising data on a hard drive to put broken up files back together and collect up the free space
What us denial-of-service attack?
A network attack which stops users from accessing a part of a network or website
What is a device driver?
A piece of software that allows applications to communicate with a piece of hardware
What is a digital divide?
The inequality created by the fact that some people have greater access to technology than others
What is digital signal?
The representation if an analogue signal using binary data
What is disk health utility?
A piece of system software that checks a disk for problems
What is disk management?
Organisation and maintenance of the hard disk
What is a dongle?
A small piece of hardware that allows devices to connect to a network wirelessly
What is a DO-WHILE loop?
A type of indefinite iteration statement
What is DRM?
(Digital Rights Management)
A feature implemented in software to prevent unauthorised usage. Includes things like activation keys and online authentication
What is an ELSE-IF statement?
A type of selection statement
What is email confirmation?
A way of checking that the email address a person uses to register for something is real and belongs to them
What is an embedded system?
A computer built into another device
What is encryption?
Coding data so that it can only be decoded with the correct key
What is an environmental issue?
An issue relating to how we impact the natural world
What is erroneous data
Test data that a program isn’t designed to accept
What is Ethernet?
A family of network protocols used on wired LANs
What is an ethical issue?
Something which raises questions of right and wrong
What is E-waste?
Discarded computer material
What is extended ASCII
An 8-bit character set consisting on 256 characters
What is extreme data?
Test data on the boundary if what the program will accept
What is the fetch-decode-execute cycle?
The process that the CPU uses to retrieve and execute instructions
What is a fibre-optic cable?
A high performance cable that is uses light to carry data
What is a field?
An element of a record used to store one piece of data
What is file handling?
Reading from and writing to external file
What is file management?
The organisation, movement and deletion of files
What is file sharing?
Copying files between devices over a network
What is a firewall?
A type of anti-malware software that examines data entering a network and blocks potential threats
What is firmware?
Permanent software stored on ROM, used to control hardware or embedded system
What is flash memory?
Solid state non-volatile data storage
What is a flowchart?
A graphical way of showing an algorithm
What is a FOR loop?
A type of definite iteration statement
What is a frame?
A unit of data sent over the link layer of the TCP/IP
What is FTP?
(File Transfer Protocol)
A protocol used to access, edit and move files on another device, like a server
What is a function?
A subroutine that carries out instructions and returns a value
How many Megabytes are in a gigabyte?
What is a global variable?
A variable throughout the whole program
What is GPU?
Graphics Processing Unit
A circuit for handling the processing of graphics and images
What is GUI?
Graphic User Interface
Allows the user to interact with the computer in a visual and intuitive way
What is a graphics card?
A piece of hardware containing a GPU
What is a hacker?
A person who tries to access or attack a computer network or device by exploiting weaknesses in its security
What is a hard disk drive?
Traditional internal storage for PCs and laptops that storesdafa magnetically
What is hardware?
The physical parts of a computer system
What is a heat sink?
A component in a computer which pulls heat away from the CPU to help maintain its temperature
What is hexadecimal?
A counting system using base-16 consisting of digits 0-9 and the letters A-F
What is high level-language?
A programming language like C++ and Java that is easy for humans to understand
What is a hotspot?
A location where people can access a wireless access point
What is HTTP?
Hyper Text Transfer Protocol
A protocol used by web browsers to access websites and communicate with web servers
What is HTTPS?
A version of HTTP that encrypts data
What is Huffman coding?
A type of lossless compression that assigns codes of varying length to data based on its frequency
What is an IF statement?
A type is selection statement
What is image resolution?
The number of pixels in an image
What is IMAP?
Internet Message Access Protocol
A protocol used to retrieve emails from a server
What is indefinite iteration?
A type of iteration statement where the number of times it repeats depends on a condition
What is indentation?
Spaces put at the beginning of lines of help show a program’s structure