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Flashcards in Glossary of Terms Deck (155):
1

aestivate

To spend the summer (or a warm or dry period) in a dormant condition; opposed to hibernate

2

alate

a winged form of an insect, especially the winged, reproductive forms of ants and termites

3

anaphylaxis

Protein sensitization caused by a prior introduction of the same protein in the body

4

anterior

toward the front, as apposed to posterior; in front of

5

apex

the part of any joint or segment opposite the base or point of attachment to the body

6

apical

At, near, or pertaining to the end, tip, or outermost part

7

basal

at or near the point of attachment to the main body

8

basis capituli

In ticks, the basal point of the false head

9

beak

the protruding mouthpart structures of a sucking insect

10

bivoltine

two generations per year

11

brachypterous

Having short wings that do not cover the abdomen

12

budding

In social insects the multiplication of colonies by the departure from the parental nest of one or more reproductive forms, accompanied by groups of workers, leaving behind comparable individuals to perpetuate the parental nest. The same as colony fission.

13

callow

Recently molted adult that is not entirely hardened or fully colored

14

carapace

In crustacea, the hard covering of the thorax

15

carina

An elevated ridge or keel

16

caste

Any set of individuals in a colony that is morphologically distinct and specialized in behavior

17

cephalothorax

in spiders and other other arachnids, the body region consisting of the head and thoracic segments

18

cerci

a pair of appendages at the tip of the abdomen, usually slender and segmented

19

chelicerae

A major element in the mouth[arts of spiders and related arthropods; in the form of fangs, pincers, or piercing organs

20

Chitin

a colorless nitrogenous polysaccharide occurring in the cuticle of arthropods

21

chorion

the outer shell or covering of an insect egg

22

clavate

thickening gradually toward the tip

23

cloaca

the common chamber into which the anus and the gonopore open; rectum

24

clypeus

the part of the insect head that attaches posteriorly to the upper lip (labrum)

25

comb

a row of hairs or bristles on the head of fleas

26

copularium

the chamber initially excavated by termite reproductives in which copulation occurs

27

costa

the thickened front vein or margin of an insects wing

28

coxa

the basal segment of the insect's leg, by which it is articulated to the body

29

crochets

curved spines or hooks on the underside of the prolegs of caterpillars

30

cysticercoid

second stage larva of the tapeworm Dipylidium which is infective to the dog or car upon ingestion

31

cytolyctic

causing the disintegration of cells

32

dealate

An individual that has shed its wings

33

developmental threshold

the minimum temperature required for development

34

diapause

At any stage in the life cycle, a physiological state of arrested development and reduced metabolic rate, during which growth and differentiation cease; a period of dormancy

35

disc

the central upper surface of any part; the central area of a wing

36

distal

the part of a segment or appendage farthest from the body

37

diurnal

Active during the daytime

38

ecdysis

Molting; the process of shedding the exoskeleton

39

eclosion

Emergence of the adult from the pupa; hatching of the larva from the egg

40

ectoparasite

a parasite that lives on the outside of its host

41

elytra

the two thickened, hardened, or leathery forewings of beetles and earwigs

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endoparasite

a parasitic organism that lives inside its host

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entomophagous

insect-eating

44

exuvium

the cast skin of larvae or nymphs at metamorphosis

45

filiform

Threadlike; slender and of equal diameter

46

fission

In social insects the multiplication of colonies by the departure from the parental nest of one or more reproductive forms, accompanied by groups of workers, leaving behind comparable individuals to perpetuate the parental nest. The same as colony budding.

47

fontanelle

In termites, the opening of the frontal pore on the surface of the head

48

frass

solid excrement and/or wood fibers

49

gallery

A long, narrow passage in wood chewed by a tunneling insect

50

Gaster

in ants and wasps, the rounded part of the abdomen that is great of the nodelike segment(s)

51

Gena

the cheek, the part of the head on each side below the eyes, extending to the gular suture

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genal comb

In fleas, a row of strong spines borne on the lateroventral border of the head

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genu

the joint between demure and tibia; the knee

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gonopore

the external opening of the reproductive organs

55

gregarious

occurring in aggregations or groups

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gyne

the female or queen ant or wasp

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hemorrhagic

causing a discharge of blood from a ruptured vessel

58

halter

a small knobbed structure, representing the hind wing, on each side of the metathorax of true flies (Diptera).

59

Head capsule

the combined sclerites of the head that form a hard, compact case

60

hemielytron

the front wing of Hemiptera, the basal half of which is thickened and the rear is membranous.

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hemimetabolous

Undergoing development that is gradual and lacks a sharp separation into larval, pupal, and adult stages (larval stages [nymphs] are often similar to adults in appearance and feeding behavior). Undergoing simple, incomplete metamorphosis.

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hemolytic

Causing the dissolution of red blood corpuscles with liberation of their hemoglobin.

63

hindgut

the posterior region of the digestive tract, between the midgut and the anus

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holometabolous

Having complete transformation, with egg, larval, pupal, and adult stages distinctly separated. Undergoing complete metamorphosis

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hyaline

transparent or partly so

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hypostome

in ticks, a dartlike structure arising from the median ventral surface of the false head (basis capital)

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insectivorous

feeding on insects

68

macropterous

Long- or large- winged

69

Masticatory

Mouthparts formed for chewing and grinding

70

maxilla

The hind or second set of jaws behind the mandibles

71

mesophyll

the leaf substance lying between the upper and lower epidermis

72

mesopleuron

The sclerites along the side of the mesothorax

73

mesothorax

The third or posterior segment of the thorax

74

monomorphic

having only one form

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morphological

Relating to form and structure as opposed to function

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morphology

the science of form or structure

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multivoltine

Having more than one generation in a year or season

78

myiasis

Disease or injury caused be the invasion of fly (Diptera) larvae

79

neotenic

In termites, a reproductive that retains some juvenile characteristics

80

Nuptial Flight

in social insects, the mating or pairing flight of the winged males and females

81

Ocellus

A simple eye, consisting of a single beadlike lens, occurring singly or in small groups

82

ootheca

The covering case containing the egg mass as a whole

83

palp

A jointed sensory appendage of the mouth

84

parasitoid

An arthropod that parasitizes and kills an arthropod host; parasitic in the immature stages but free-living as an adult

85

Parthenogenesis

Reproduction by direct growth of egg cells without fertilization by the male

86

Pathogen

A disease-causing organism

87

Pedicel

In ants, the waist, which, which is made up of either one segment (the petiole) or two segments ( the petiole and the postetiole

88

pedipalps

In Chelicerata, the second pair of wing appendages in the cephalothorax, used in crushing prey

89

penultimate

Next to the last

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peridomestic

pertaining to cockroach species that commonly occur around the periphery of structures and disturbed outdoor sites

91

peripheral

Relating to the outer margin

92

petiole

In ants, the first segment of the "waist" (pedicel).

93

phenology, phenological

Temporal and seasonal pattern of life-history events in plants and animals

94

phloem

Inner bark; food conducting tissue

95

phragmosis

The habit exhibited by insects of closing the entrances to nests or burrows with portions of the head

96

phytophagous

Feeding on plants

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phytotoxic

Toxic to some plants

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pilose

Covered with hair

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polymorphic

having many different forms or sizes

100

polyphagous

Eating many kinds of food.

101

postclypeus

the posterior or upper part of the clypeus when any line of demarcation exists

102

prepupa

a transitional quiescent stage between the and of the larval period and the pupal period

103

presoldier

In termites, an unpigmented, unsclerotized individual with a soldierlike head and morphology. The presoldier stage is a separate instar, from which individuals molt into soldiers

104

Primary reporductive

In termites, the colony founding male or female derived form the winged adult

105

proboscis

any extended, beaklike mouth structure

106

proctodeal

Pertaining to the hindgut (proctodaeum).

107

proleg

Fleshy, unsegmented abdominal walking appendage of some insect larva

108

pronotum

The upper or dorsal surface of the prothorax

109

prothorax

the first, or anterior, of the three segments of the thorax that bears the first pair of legs, but no wings.

110

pseudergate

In termites, a nonreproductive, nonsoldier individual that diverges from the imaginal (adult) line at a relatively late instar through a regressive or a stationary molt.

111

pubescense

Short, fine, soft hairs or setae

112

punctate

Set with small puncturelike impressions

113

puparium

In higher Diptera, the thickened, hardened, barrel-like skin, in which the pupa is formed.

114

riparian

Pertaining to the banks of a river, lake, or other body of water

115

rostrum

a beak or snout

116

sapwood

The softer part of the wood between the bark and the central heartwood

117

scale

A flat, unicellular outgrowth of the insect body wall, of various shapes

118

scape

The basal segment of an antenna

119

sclerite

A hardened body wall plate bounded by sutures or membranous areas

120

sclerotized

Hardened. Pertaining to portions of the insect integument that are hardened in definite area by formation of substances other than chitin.

121

sessile

Attached or fastened; not free to move about

122

seta

A bristle; a slender, hairlike appendage.

123

simple eyes

the ocelli

124

softwood

Living outer layers of wood, usually light in color

125

spermatheca

The saclike structure in the arthropod female in which sperm from the male are received and often stored

126

spiracle

a breathing pore located alongtheu side of the insect body

127

spur

a movable spine

128

sternite

The ventral plate of an abdominal segment

129

sternum

The entire ventral division of any segment; the underside of the insect thorax

130

stigma

A spiracle or breathing pore

131

stomatodeal

Pertaining to the foregut.

132

stria

A groover depressed line

133

stylet

One of the piercing structures in piercing-sucking mouthparts

134

surfactant

A substance that reduces the interfacial tension of two boundaries

135

tarsal claw

The claw, usually paired, found on the end of the last tarsal segment

136

tarsus

The insect foot; the outermost jointed division of the insect's leg that consists of from one to five segments.

137

taxon

A taxonomic category, such as phylum, class, order, family, genus, species.

138

taxonomic species

Forms deemed to be discrete because of a consensus of structural (morphological) characters

139

taxonomy

The science of classification into categories of varying rank, based on similarities and differences, and the describing and naming of these categories.

140

tegmen

In cockroaches, the thickened or leathery front wing.

141

tergite

the upper (dorsal) part of the body segment

142

tibia

In insects, the fourth division of the leg articulated at the proximal end nearest the body to the femur and the distal end to the tarsus

143

transverse

Across; at right angles to the longitudinal axis

144

trophallaxis

The mutual exchange of nourishment, one insect with another

145

trumpet

the respiratory horn or tube of the mosquito pupa

146

truncate

Cut off squarely at the tip

147

univoltine

Having one generation in a year or season

148

urogomphi

Fixed or mobile processes on the last segment of certain beetle larvae

149

venter

the underside of the abdomen

150

ventral

the underside

151

vestigial

Small of degenerate; the remains of a previously functional part

152

viviparous

Bearing live young

153

wing pads

The underdeveloped wings of nymphs of hemimetabolous insects (e.g. Hemiptera), which show behind the thorax as two lateral, flat structures.

154

xeric

Adapted to an extremely dry habitat

155

xylem

The principal strengthening and water-conducting tissue of branches, stems, and roots.