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Jonathan's Metabolism > Glucose > Flashcards

Flashcards in Glucose Deck (32):
1

How much energy does ATP and NADH provide?

ATP = 30.5 kj/mol
NADH = 220 kj/mol

2

What's the term for breakdown of energy?

catabolism

3

What does anabolism mean?

build up of energy

4

How efficient is the metabolic cycle?

~40%

5

Does ATP travel as free units?

No, they are bound to Mg

6

What's the half life of ATP?

~1 min

7

How is NADP+ different to NAD?

a hydroxyl group is esterified with phosphate

8

What is NAD used for?

anti-oxidant and high-energy demanding pathways

9

What is the product of glycolysis?

2 pyruvate, 2 ATP and 2 NADH

10

How many carbons do monosaccharides have?

3-7 carbons

11

How is glucose harmful to the body?

it easily reacts with surface proteins, causing problems in the circulation

12

What happens to blood vessels when they are glycated?

they become brittle and prone to clots. Hence diabetics can become blind

13

At what level of blood glucose will result in glucose detected in urine

over 10mM

14

T/F glycolysis is efficient

False, only 2.1% of glucose energy is captured. This is an anaerobic pathway

15

which substance in the blood can indicate high glucose level in blood?

haemoglobin A1C, the glycosylated RBC

16

Where does glycolysis occur in a cell? What prevents it from leaking out of the cell membrane?

in the cytosol. It carries phosphate that has a negative charge to prevent leaking

17

Where can you find these channels?
1) Glut 1
2) Glut 2

1) all cells in the body
2) on the liver and pancreas

18

What does Glut 4 respond to?

insulin

19

What happens to the cells of a diabetic

lack of insulin stimulation to cells, so there is high circulating glucose, but the cells are still starving of energy

20

What is the action of hexokinase?

converts glucose to glucose 6-phosphate while consuming one ATP

21

What kind of enzyme is hexokinase?

It is a two-domain enzyme. Glucose binding to one site, and ATP to the other

22

Which sugars to Glut 2 take?

glucose, fructose and galactose

23

What is the end product of gluconeogenesis and can be used to make glycogen

glucose 6-phosphate

24

What is the action of phophohexose isomerase?

regroup 6 member ring to a 5 member ring
convert glucose-6-p to fructose 6-p

25

What's the action of phosphofructokinase? When is it active?

initiate the irreversible glycolysis pathway
it is active when there is low [ATP]

26

What is needed in anaerobic metabolism

NAD+

27

why do we produce lactic acid in anaerobic metabolism

to regenerate NAD+

28

Which cells of the body are obligate anaerobes

retina and red cells

29

T/F fatty acids are glucogenic

False, they are ketogenic

30

what is lactose made of?

galactose and glucose

31

what's the reaction converting galactose to glucose?

epimerisation

32

Why is fructose bad for you?

it tends to make fatty acid