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Flashcards in Gluteus & Posterior Thigh Deck (62):
1

What 3 muscles are innervated by Superior Gluteal Nerve?

1. Gluteus Medius
2. Gluteus Minimus
3. Tensor Fascia Lata

2

What muscle is innervate by Inferior Gluteal Nerve?

1. Gluteus Maximus

3

What 2 muscles are innervated by Nerve to Obturator Internus? Nerve to Quadratus Femoris?

1. Obterator Internus
2. Superior Gamellus

4

What 2 muscles are innervated by Nerve to Quadratus Femoris?

1. Inferior Gemellus
2. Quadratus Femoris

5

The blood supply to the superior gluteal region is done by what branch of internal iliac?

Superior Gluteal A.

- to Gluteus Maximus

6

What bicep is innervated by the Common Peroneal Nerve?

Short Head of the biceps

7

The tibial Nerve innervates what muscles?

1. Long Head of Biceps
2. Semitendinosus
3. Semimembranosus

8

What are the 4 hamstring muscles from medial to lateral? What are they innervated by?

medial to lateral in the mid thigh:

1. Semimembranosus
2. Semitendinosus
3. Long head of Biceps
- ALL TIBIAL EXCEPT:
4. Short head of Biceps (Common Peroneal N.)

9

What muscle becomes tendinous and enters the LESSER SCIATIC FORAMEN?

Obturator internus becomes tendinous and leaves the pelvis via the lesser sciatic foramen*

10

Obterator Internus

Name the:
1. Origin
2. Insertion
3. Action
4. INNERVATION

ORIGIN
Inner surface of obturator membrane and rim of pubis and ischium bordering membrane

INSERTION
GREATER TROCHANTER

ACTION
LATERALY ROTATES and stabilizes hip

NERVE
Nerve to obturator internus (L5, S1,2)

11

Superior Gamellus

Name the:
1. Origin
2. Insertion
3. Action
4. INNERVATION

ORIGIN
Spine of ischium

INSERTION
GREATER TROCHANTER OF FEMUR

ACTION
laterally rotates and stabilizes hip

NERVE
Nerve to obturator internus (L5, S1, 2)

12

Which muscle is innervated by the Nerve to Quadratis Femoris along w/ the Quadrates femurs muscle?


GEMELLUS INFERIOR -- LATERAL ROTATOR 

Below Obterator**

13

Inferior Gamellus

Name the:
1. Origin
2. Insertion
3. Action
4. INNERVATION

ORIGIN
Upper border of ischial tuberosity

INSERTION
GREATER TROCHANTER of FEMUR*

ACTION
LATERALLY ROTATES and stabilizes hip

NERVE
Nerve to quadratus femoris (L4, 5, S1)

14

Where does the sacrotuberous ligament attach to?

Sacrum to Ischial Tuberosity

15

Where does the sacrospinous ligament attach?

DEEPER & more horizontal

- Sacrum to Ischial Spine


Above = greater sciatic foramen
below = the lesser.


16

Describe the route of the Internal Pudendal Artery & Pudendal Nerve?

*the pudendal nerve and int pudendal artery leave the pelvis thru:

1. the greater sciatic foramen,

2. loop over the sacrospinous ligament,

3. and enter the perineum thru the lesser sciatic foramen

17

What innervates the Piriformis muscle? What is its action

1. Anterior Primary Rami S1, S2

2. LATERAL Rotator

18

Piriformis Muscle

Name the:
1. Origin
2. Insertion
3. Action
4. INNERVATION

ORIGIN

2, 3, 4 costotransverse bars of anterior sacrum, few fibers from superior border of greater sciatic notch

INSERTION
GREATER TROCHANTER***

ACTION
LATERALLY ROTATES and stabilizes hip

NERVE
Anterior primary rami of S1, 2

19

What muscle of the posterior thigh ABDUCTS & MEDIALLY* Rotates the thigh? What is its innervation?

Gluteus Minimus

- Superior Gluteal Nerve

20

Gluteus Minimus Muscle

Name the:
1. Origin
2. Insertion
3. Action
4. INNERVATION

ORIGIN
Outer surface of ilium between middle and inferior gluteal lines

INSERTION
GREATER TROCHANTER

ACTION
Abducts and medially rotates hip. Tilts pelvis on walking.
NERVE
Superior gluteal nerve (L4, 5, S1)

21

What is a positive Trendelenburg sign?
What Nerve is lesioned?
Which muscles are affected?

1. positive Trendelenburg sign –pelvis sags toward side of swing phase during walking

2. Superior Gluteal

3. Gluteus Medius, Minimus

22

Gluteus Medius Muscle

Name the:
1. Origin
2. Insertion
3. Action
4. INNERVATION

GLUTEUS MEDIUS

ORIGIN
Outer surface of ilium between posterior and middle gluteal lines

INSERTION
GREATER TROCHANTER

ACTION
ABDUCT+ MEDIALLY ROTATES, Tilts pelvis on walking

NERVE
Superior gluteal nerve (L4,5,S1)

23

Quadratus Femoris Muscle

Name the:
1. Origin
2. Insertion
3. Action
4. INNERVATION

QUADRATUS FEMORIS

ORIGIN
***ischial tuberosity

INSERTION
Quadrate tubercle of FEMUR (remember it is to FEMUR) and a vertical line below this to the level of lesser trocanter

ACTION
LATERALLY rotates and stabilizes hip

NERVE
Nerve to quadratus femoris (L4, 5, S1)

24

What muscle inserts on the ILIOTIBIAL tract & assists in knee extension?

Gluteus Maximus

25

What is the function of Gluteus Maximus? What is its innervation?

ASSIST in knee extension, LATERAL ROTATOR (unlike other gluteus muscles)

- Innervation = INFERIOR GLUTEAL N.

26

Gluteus Maximus



Name the:
1. Origin
2. Insertion
3. Action
4. INNERVATION

ORIGIN
Outer surface of ilium

INSERTION
ILIOTIBIAL TRACT

ACTION
EXTEND & LATERALLY ROTATES hip. Maintains knee extended via iliotibial tract

NERVE
Inferior gluteal nerve (L5, S1,2)

27

What are the 3 muscles that form the PEZ ANSORINUS?

1. Sartorius
2.Gracilis
3.Semitendinosus

(S-G-T)

- all form common tendon*

28

What innervates the superior gamellus? The inferior?

Superior = Nerve to Obterator Internus

Inferior = Quadratus Femoris

29

What is the only muscle that does not originate from the ischial tuberosity and is NOT innervated by the Tibial Nerve?

SHORT HEAD OF BICEPS FEMORIS

- inserts directly onto the FEMUR

- FLEX + LATERALLY EXTEND

INNERVATED BY COMMON PERONEAL N.

30

Semimembranosus & Semitendonosus both insert where?

Medial epicondyle of the knee

-FLEX + MEDIALLY ROTATE

31

All muscles inserting on the GREATER TROCHANTER laterally rotate the knee. True or False?

TRUE

32

The common perineal nerve runs medial or lateral on the posterior aspect of the thigh?

LATERAL

33

The Superior Gluteal Artery travels between which nerve roots?

L5 and S1

34

What artery loops around the Pubic Symphysis?

Abnormal Obterator Artery

35

The Pudendal N. splits into what two nerves?

Inferior Rectal(higher) & Perineal (lower & medial)

36

What is the band of fascia in the leg? What muscle originates at the top part of this fascia? What is this innervated by?

Iliotibial Tract

- Tensor Fascia Lata (Superior Gluteal N.)

37

If one were to inject in the thigh, which area would be best?

Superiolatral (avoid the Sciatic Nerve)

38

Of the biceps, which one (long or short) abduct AND flex the knee? Which only flexes?

LONG Head abducts & flexes (tibial)

Short head only flexes (common perineal n.)

39

The artery and vein in the thigh slip through what hiatus?

ADDUCTOR HIATUS

40

What are the 3 muscles of the hamstrings?

1. Long head of Biceps
2. Semimembranosus
3. Semitendinosus

(LSS)

41

Which gluteus muscle is above piriformis? Which muscle covers performs AND this muscle?

1. Gluteus Minimus

2. Gluteus Medius

42

What muscle tenses the iliotibial tract? What is the function of this muscle on the thigh? What is it innervated by?

Tensor Fascia Lata

- ABDUCT THE THIGH, extend the knee*

- Superior Gluteal Nerve

43

What muscles are innervated by Superior Gluteal N.?

1. Gluteus Minimus
2. Gluteus Medius
3. Tensor Fascia Lata

44

Tensor Fascia Lata


Name the:
1. Origin
2. Insertion
3. Action
4. INNERVATION

ORIGIN
Anterior Iliac Crest

INSERTION
Iliotibial tract (anterior surface of lateral condyle of tibia)

ACTION
Maintains knee extended (assists gluteus maximus) and abducts hip

NERVE
Superior gluteal nerve (L4, 5, S1)

45

What is sciatica usually caused by?

Prolapse of the disk at L4/L5

- associated w/ intense pain

46

What happens if you cut the sciatic nerve?

Everything below the knee is paralyzed

- sensation lost on lateral leg

- + both sides of the foot

47

What are the contributions to the Sciatic Nerve?

SCIATIC: L4,5, S1,2,3

48

What is the path the pudendal nerve takes?

1. leaves Greater Sciatic Foramen

2. Travels over the Sacrospinous Ligament (under Sacrotuberous)

3. Enters Lesser Sciatic Foramen

49

Alcock's canal is a thickening of the fascia of what muscle?

Obterator Internus

50

What is the origin for the short and long head of the Biceps Femoris muscle?

1. Short = FEMUR

2. Long = Ischial Tuberosity

51

Biceps Femoris (Long & Short Head)


Name the:
1. Origin
2. Insertion
3. Action
4. INNERVATION

ORIGIN
Long head: ischial tuberosity. Short head: femur

INSERTION
Styloid process of head of fibula. lateral collateral ligament and lateral tibial condyle

ACTION
Flexes and laterally rotates knee. Long head extends hip

NERVE
Long head: tibial portion of sciatic nerve.

Short head: common peroneal portion of sciatic nerve (both L5, S1)

52

Semimembranosus


Name the:
1. Origin
2. Insertion
3. Action
4. INNERVATION

Origin: Ischial tuberosity

Insertion: Tibia

Action: FLEX + MEDIALLY rotate knee (extend hip)

N: Tibial Portion of Sciatic

(more medial to Semitendinosus; below Semitendinosus)

53

Semitendinosus

Name the:
1. Origin
2. Insertion
3. Action
4. INNERVATION

Semitendinosus = thinner

Same place as semimembrenosus almost*

O: Ischial Tuberosity
I: to the Tibia

FLEX KNEE + Medial rotatation

N: TIBIAL PORTION OF SCIATIC

54

Damage to what nerve causes foot drop?


COMMON PERONEAL --> around the head of the Tibula

55

What 5 muscles are innervates by the Pudendal Nerve?

1. external anal sphincter
2. bulbospongiosus
3. ischiocavernosus
4. transverse perineus (superficial & deep)
5. sphincter urethrae

56

Inferior Gluteal Anastomoses with what 2 arteries in the femur?

Superior Gluteal anastomoses with medial and lateral femoral circumflex

57

If there was a thrombosis in the Femoral Artery, would blood still be able to bypass the blockage elsewhere? If so, where?

CLINICALLY IMPORTANT: blood from inferior gluteal A. can bypass a blockage

- blood can go around blockage through Inferior Gluteal to--> Lateral & Medial Femoral Circumflex --> to FIRST PERFORATING BRANCH OF PROFUNDA FEMORIS

58

What is a cruciate anastomoses? What is the route that blood takes from the Internal Iliac to reach the Popliteal Artery?

Anastomoses of 4 arteries to bypass a blockage in the Femoral A.

A) Internal Iliac A.

1. Inferior Gluteal Artery
2. Medial Femoral Circumflex A.
3. Lateral Femoral Circumflex A.
4. 1st Perforating Artery of Profunda FEMORIS

5) POPLITEAL A.

59

Where does the Femoral A. disappear behind the knee? What does it get renamed to?

Adductor Hiatus = artery dissapears behind knee

--> reappears as the Poploteal

60

Which Nerve is damaged when one tests positive for the Tredelendburg sign? Which direction will the hip sway? Which muscle would be non-functioning?

1. Superior Gluteal N.

2. would sway AWAY from the injury

3. Gluteus Medius & Minimus would be DROOPY = injured

61

What muscles abduct?

1. Glutues Minimus
2. Gluteus Medius
3. Piriformis
4. Obterator Internus

62

What muscle assist Gluteus Maximus in knee extension?

Tensor Fascia Lata