Goeli- Antioxidants Flashcards Preview

IHO Week 4 > Goeli- Antioxidants > Flashcards

Flashcards in Goeli- Antioxidants Deck (18):
1

How do cells protect themselves against damage by ROS and other radicals?

1. Compartmentalization of free radical production
2. Metal sequestration (Metals used in fenton rxn)
3. Repair processes
4. Defense enzymes
5. Endogenous and Exogenous anti-oxidants

2

What is superoxide dismutase?

An enzyme that converts superoxide anion to hydrogen peroxide and 02

3

Why is superoxide dismutase referred to as the "primary defense against oxidative stress"?

Because the superoxide free radical is a strong initiator of chain reactions. If you convert it to hydrogen peroxide you can neutralize it.

4

What enzyme is implicated in familial ALS (Lou Gherig's)?

Superoxide Dismutase

5

What are the three enzymatic antioxidants?

Catalase
Glutathione
Superoxide Dismutase

6

What are the 6 dietary anti-oxidants?

vit: ACE
Carotenoids
Bioflavanoids
Co Q10

7

What are non-ezymatic anti-oxidants?

Antioxidants convert free radicals to a non-radical/non-toxic form by donating e to fill an unpaired orbital (most donate a H atom to the radical)

*often have a conjugated double bond system (aromatic ring)

8

Vit E is also known as....

alpha-tocopherol

9

Vit E is found in what foods...

corn
nuts
olives
green leafy vegetables
vegetable oils
wheat germ

10

What are the characteristics of Vit E def?

Uncommon
hemolytic anemia d/t fragility of RBCs
myopathy
neurologic deficits d/t degeneration of neurons

11

What are the two impt functions of vit C?

Collagen synthesis
Donates e to Vit E so it can participate in other rxns

12

What are the characteristics of Vit C def?

Scurvy!!

Impaired wound healing
bleeding ecchymoses
swollen gums
anemia
enlargement and keratosis of hair follicles
lethargy
depression

13

What is beta-carotene?

A pre-cursor for Vit A

14

What vitamin def leads to night blindness and is the number 1 cause of non-accidnetal blindness world wide?

Vit A deficiency

*Also causes: follicular hyperkeratosis, xeropthalmia

15

What foods are flavenoids in?

red wine, green tea, chocolate, and other plant derived foods

16

What do flavenoids do?

Inhibit enzymes (XO) responsible for superoxide anion production

Chelate Fe and Cu to preven the fenton rxn

17

What endogenous antioxidant is responsible for free-radical trapping in plasa?

Uric acid

18

What is Melatonin and why is it unique?

Neurohormone secreted by the pineal gland.

Donates electrons to neutralize free radicals.

It has joint hydrophillic/hydrophobic nautre which allows it to pass through membranes and the BBB