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Flashcards in Going Global Deck (37):

What benefits were there to Taiwan of globalisation?

- 30 years ago poorer than most of Africa, now it's as rich as Spain
- Wages are 10x higher than 40 years ago
- Land given to the people ( incentives to look after it)
- Land ownership allowed people to build factories
- Grandparents- farmers, Parents- factory worker, now- software engineers
- Quarternary led economy


What negatives were there for Tawain due to globalisation?

- Loss of culture
- Environmental damage
- Nuclear waste
- Injuries (health and safety?)


What countries are most connected?

- UK
Lots to offer in convenient locations


What countries are least connected?

- Ukraine
- Somalia
- Uganda
Landlocked countries with little to offer


What types of links are there between countries?

- Trade- primary products, goods, services
- Labour- settlers, cheap labour
- Aid- doing good, being greedy
- Foreign investment- particularly in primary sector (oil)
- History- colonial links


What positive impacts have there been of globalisation?

- Global tourism has increased
- Emerging global village of music, film etc. enthusiasts
- Cheaper mobile and internet prices mean communication and internet is easier
- Cheaper to export and import (less tariffs)


What negative impacts have there been of globalisation?

- Loss of national identity
- Companies are able to influence many peoples opinions
- Cheaper labour abroad is being used instead of employing UK people (outsourcing for labour)


What factors have accelerated globalisation?

- TNC development- 7000 in 1970 --> 38,000 in 2000
- Transport- 2007 A380 airbus developed and 1989 the internet
- Markets- BRICS in 2001 and 215 Walmart in China 2008
-International Organisations- i.e. UNESCO, World Bank, EU


What is a TNC?

A transnational corporation
- A firm which has the power to co-ordinate and control operations in more than one country
- They usually only operate in a few countries
- Mainly involved in manufacture and services
- Usually have HQ in MEDC or NIC but manufacture in an LEDC or an LDC


Why are TNCs growing?

- Containerisation + planes
- Internet
- Satellites- (just in time production)
- Consolidation of smaller firms into one large firm
- Natural growth- production sell well --> investment


Why did Toyota set up a factory in Derby?

- Toyota factory opened in 1992
- Good area of land (large and flat)
- Save on import tax (none into the EU from the UK)
- Good connection- transport to market and suppliers


Why do TNCs establish overseas?

- To access new markets and match competitors
- Provide export platforms
- Avoid trade barriers
- Reduce production costs
- Exploit economies of scale
- Diversify production
- Avoid domestic regulations


Pros of TNCs

- Literacy improvements
- More money in the local market
- Hybrid products (mixed cultures)


Cons of TNCs

- Luring farmers away (famine?)
- Ecosystem damage
- Increasing income inequality


What do people think about Tesco?

-Greenpeace- Tesco is putting profit before protecting the environment- they need to do more
- They don't fish sustainably + paper products are bad
- South Africa fruit picker- work long hours around pesticides for below minimum wage, no gender equality
- Orpington person- Will take shoppers away from smaller stores but will breathe life into the high street
- Tesco- supports british farmers, 98% of new stores in 2007 were on brownfield sites, provides global jobs, 1250 global stores, 60% of international profits from Asia


What are the BRICS?

Brazil, Russia, India, China, South Africa
- Countries most likely to develop quickly in the 2000s
- China did better than the other BRICS
- All NICs


What are the MINTs?

Mexico, Indonesia, Nigeria, Turkey
- Countries that will develop most after 2013
- Nigeria has very low GDP but will increase due to oil and population growth
-Massive GDP rise by 2050
- They have a growing, youthful pop, good governance etc


Why is most economic growth happening in urban not rural areas in China and India?

- Trickle down effect- the investment is into the cities and then a little bit makes it down to the rural areas
- India- Free trade, low international prices and policy focus on urban areas has meant that life is hard for farmers
- Urbanisation- everywhere is being developed, environmental probs- hard to grow crops, open farmers make very little money so move to the cities


What problems could there be with an ageing population?

- There will be more gov. spending on pensions, elderly working later to get money, changing consumer demands
- Less people to look after the elderly (neglect?), more women than men (WW2), larger pop. in retirement areas
- The "grey vote", more elderly people so policies are likely to be in their favour
- Ageism in workplace
- More healthcare services will be needed as well as more services such as meals on wheels, stairlifts etc.


Where do the elderly live?

- Cheap places
- Low crime
- Nature/ seaside
- Quiet
- Easy access to go out


How has Bromley's population changed?

- More skilled jobs
- Decreasing number of births
- Steep rise in service jobs after 1975
- Agriculture decreasing since 1900
- More females than males (WW2), not many young people, families and the elderly


Why has the UK got an ageing population

Falling birthrate
- Abortion legal (1967)
- The pill (1961)
- School leaving age is now 18
- Women are able to work
Rising life expectancy
- Ban on smoking and less cool
- NHS (1946)
- Clean air act improved air quality (1956)
- More people working in services rather than manufacture, farming or mining


What benefits could there be of an ageing population?

- Volunteering
- Caring for grandchildren
- Leisure and tourism spending
- Experienced workforce
- Law abiding


How are populations aging globally?

- In 2009 median age was 29, in 2050 it will be 38
- By 2050 developing countries will have a median age of over 40
- Globally the number of 0-64 year olds won't increase much but 65+ will increase quickly (1950- 2050)


In developing countries what how were the elderly looked after and how is that changing?

- Immediate family and the community cared for them
- Now families are smaller, more women are working and the children are traveling to find work
- There is less of a community feel due to urbanisation
- Old people's homes- more reliant on assets


What positive impacts are there of migration for the host country?

- Economic growth- spending more
- Younger population (easing the pension burden)
- Work in areas where the is labour shortages
- More religious


What negative impacts are there of migration for the host country?

- More emergency services are needed
- More housing is needed (buy to let culture)
- They are unlikely to pay enough tax to pay for their old age
- More claims on benefits
- Many migrant communities don't integrate with society


Why do British people retire to Spain?

- Climate
- Tourism
- Lifestyle
- Large ex-pat population
- Technology- it's easy to keep in contact with family
- Low cost of living


Why do migrants return home?

- They miss their family
- They need healthcare- NHS
- No money
- They need help


What benefits were there of lifting the restrictions on Bulgarians and Romanians working in the UK?

- Britain can stay competitive- cheaper labour
- Increase in demand (economic growth)
- Migrants may open more businesses
- We get highly qualified workers without paying for their education
- Skills to fill the skills gap in the UK
- More young people to aid the ageing population


What is the cycle of urbanisation?

- Reurbanisation (more people to cities)
- Urbanisation
- Suburbanisation (moving to the suburbs)
- Counter- urbanisation (moving to the countryside)


How do you classify a city due to its size?

- Millionaire city- 1 mil people
- Supercity- 5 mil people
- Mega city- 10 mil people


How do you classify a city due to its level of social development?

- Immature- very fast growth, slums, black market
- Consolidating- fast growth, migrants + urban sprawl
- Maturing- slow growth- developing world
- Established- slow or negative growth


How do you classify a city due to its economic state?

- Minor world city- not that important
- Major world city- Important in their region- Barcelona
- Full world city- global workforce, good transport, powerful- London, NY


What issues are there for London?

- 51% of inner London children live in poverty
- 37% of inner London children get free school meals
- Life expectancy varies massively in London
- 1.6 mil households waiting for social housing
- London has the highest levels of crime
- Worst air quality of any UK city
- Eco footprint is 125 times its area
- Travel to work time is 43 mins rather than 23 nationally


Why do people move to Mumbai?

- Rural poverty
- Droughts and flooding in the country
- Mumbai is a global hub
- Bollywood
- Education and health facilities
- Electricity


What problems are there in Mumbai?

- Inequality
- Economic growth
- Fast pop. growth
- Crime
- Spread of disease
- Water stress
- Pollution