Flashcards in Going Global Deck (37):
What benefits were there to Taiwan of globalisation?
- 30 years ago poorer than most of Africa, now it's as rich as Spain
- Wages are 10x higher than 40 years ago
- Land given to the people ( incentives to look after it)
- Land ownership allowed people to build factories
- Grandparents- farmers, Parents- factory worker, now- software engineers
- Quarternary led economy
What negatives were there for Tawain due to globalisation?
- Loss of culture
- Environmental damage
- Nuclear waste
- Injuries (health and safety?)
What countries are most connected?
Lots to offer in convenient locations
What countries are least connected?
Landlocked countries with little to offer
What types of links are there between countries?
- Trade- primary products, goods, services
- Labour- settlers, cheap labour
- Aid- doing good, being greedy
- Foreign investment- particularly in primary sector (oil)
- History- colonial links
What positive impacts have there been of globalisation?
- Global tourism has increased
- Emerging global village of music, film etc. enthusiasts
- Cheaper mobile and internet prices mean communication and internet is easier
- Cheaper to export and import (less tariffs)
What negative impacts have there been of globalisation?
- Loss of national identity
- Companies are able to influence many peoples opinions
- Cheaper labour abroad is being used instead of employing UK people (outsourcing for labour)
What factors have accelerated globalisation?
- TNC development- 7000 in 1970 --> 38,000 in 2000
- Transport- 2007 A380 airbus developed and 1989 the internet
- Markets- BRICS in 2001 and 215 Walmart in China 2008
-International Organisations- i.e. UNESCO, World Bank, EU
What is a TNC?
A transnational corporation
- A firm which has the power to co-ordinate and control operations in more than one country
- They usually only operate in a few countries
- Mainly involved in manufacture and services
- Usually have HQ in MEDC or NIC but manufacture in an LEDC or an LDC
Why are TNCs growing?
- Containerisation + planes
- Satellites- (just in time production)
- Consolidation of smaller firms into one large firm
- Natural growth- production sell well --> investment
Why did Toyota set up a factory in Derby?
- Toyota factory opened in 1992
- Good area of land (large and flat)
- Save on import tax (none into the EU from the UK)
- Good connection- transport to market and suppliers
Why do TNCs establish overseas?
- To access new markets and match competitors
- Provide export platforms
- Avoid trade barriers
- Reduce production costs
- Exploit economies of scale
- Diversify production
- Avoid domestic regulations
Pros of TNCs
- Literacy improvements
- More money in the local market
- Hybrid products (mixed cultures)
Cons of TNCs
- Luring farmers away (famine?)
- Ecosystem damage
- Increasing income inequality
What do people think about Tesco?
-Greenpeace- Tesco is putting profit before protecting the environment- they need to do more
- They don't fish sustainably + paper products are bad
- South Africa fruit picker- work long hours around pesticides for below minimum wage, no gender equality
- Orpington person- Will take shoppers away from smaller stores but will breathe life into the high street
- Tesco- supports british farmers, 98% of new stores in 2007 were on brownfield sites, provides global jobs, 1250 global stores, 60% of international profits from Asia
What are the BRICS?
Brazil, Russia, India, China, South Africa
- Countries most likely to develop quickly in the 2000s
- China did better than the other BRICS
- All NICs
What are the MINTs?
Mexico, Indonesia, Nigeria, Turkey
- Countries that will develop most after 2013
- Nigeria has very low GDP but will increase due to oil and population growth
-Massive GDP rise by 2050
- They have a growing, youthful pop, good governance etc
Why is most economic growth happening in urban not rural areas in China and India?
- Trickle down effect- the investment is into the cities and then a little bit makes it down to the rural areas
- India- Free trade, low international prices and policy focus on urban areas has meant that life is hard for farmers
- Urbanisation- everywhere is being developed, environmental probs- hard to grow crops, open farmers make very little money so move to the cities
What problems could there be with an ageing population?
- There will be more gov. spending on pensions, elderly working later to get money, changing consumer demands
- Less people to look after the elderly (neglect?), more women than men (WW2), larger pop. in retirement areas
- The "grey vote", more elderly people so policies are likely to be in their favour
- Ageism in workplace
- More healthcare services will be needed as well as more services such as meals on wheels, stairlifts etc.
Where do the elderly live?
- Cheap places
- Low crime
- Nature/ seaside
- Easy access to go out
How has Bromley's population changed?
- More skilled jobs
- Decreasing number of births
- Steep rise in service jobs after 1975
- Agriculture decreasing since 1900
- More females than males (WW2), not many young people, families and the elderly
Why has the UK got an ageing population
- Abortion legal (1967)
- The pill (1961)
- School leaving age is now 18
- Women are able to work
Rising life expectancy
- Ban on smoking and less cool
- NHS (1946)
- Clean air act improved air quality (1956)
- More people working in services rather than manufacture, farming or mining
What benefits could there be of an ageing population?
- Caring for grandchildren
- Leisure and tourism spending
- Experienced workforce
- Law abiding
How are populations aging globally?
- In 2009 median age was 29, in 2050 it will be 38
- By 2050 developing countries will have a median age of over 40
- Globally the number of 0-64 year olds won't increase much but 65+ will increase quickly (1950- 2050)
In developing countries what how were the elderly looked after and how is that changing?
- Immediate family and the community cared for them
- Now families are smaller, more women are working and the children are traveling to find work
- There is less of a community feel due to urbanisation
- Old people's homes- more reliant on assets
What positive impacts are there of migration for the host country?
- Economic growth- spending more
- Younger population (easing the pension burden)
- Work in areas where the is labour shortages
- More religious
What negative impacts are there of migration for the host country?
- More emergency services are needed
- More housing is needed (buy to let culture)
- They are unlikely to pay enough tax to pay for their old age
- More claims on benefits
- Many migrant communities don't integrate with society
Why do British people retire to Spain?
- Large ex-pat population
- Technology- it's easy to keep in contact with family
- Low cost of living
Why do migrants return home?
- They miss their family
- They need healthcare- NHS
- No money
- They need help
What benefits were there of lifting the restrictions on Bulgarians and Romanians working in the UK?
- Britain can stay competitive- cheaper labour
- Increase in demand (economic growth)
- Migrants may open more businesses
- We get highly qualified workers without paying for their education
- Skills to fill the skills gap in the UK
- More young people to aid the ageing population
What is the cycle of urbanisation?
- Reurbanisation (more people to cities)
- Suburbanisation (moving to the suburbs)
- Counter- urbanisation (moving to the countryside)
How do you classify a city due to its size?
- Millionaire city- 1 mil people
- Supercity- 5 mil people
- Mega city- 10 mil people
How do you classify a city due to its level of social development?
- Immature- very fast growth, slums, black market
- Consolidating- fast growth, migrants + urban sprawl
- Maturing- slow growth- developing world
- Established- slow or negative growth
How do you classify a city due to its economic state?
- Minor world city- not that important
- Major world city- Important in their region- Barcelona
- Full world city- global workforce, good transport, powerful- London, NY
What issues are there for London?
- 51% of inner London children live in poverty
- 37% of inner London children get free school meals
- Life expectancy varies massively in London
- 1.6 mil households waiting for social housing
- London has the highest levels of crime
- Worst air quality of any UK city
- Eco footprint is 125 times its area
- Travel to work time is 43 mins rather than 23 nationally
Why do people move to Mumbai?
- Rural poverty
- Droughts and flooding in the country
- Mumbai is a global hub
- Education and health facilities