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Flashcards in Gonads Deck (43):
1

How long does the menstrual cycle last for

28 days

2

when is ovulation usually

day 14

3

when does the follicular phase start

when oestrogen is low - causes the anterior pituitary to secrete FHS and LH

4

What does FSH and LH do

stimulates the follicle to develop

5

When the follicle develops what happens

granulosa cells around the egg enlarge and release oestrogen

6

What does oestrogen do to the uterus

thickens the uterine lining

7

When does ovulation occur

when there is a surge of LH

8

The follicles grow at least 20mm in size. what do they secrete

estradiol

9

when the oocyte is released, what happens next

several enzymes and prostaglandins activate and digest the the follicle wall collagen

10

When the follicle wall collagen is digested, what does this cause

the follicle to rupture releasing the ova into the fallopian tubes

11

When does the luteal phase start

after ovulation

12

What happens to the remaining granulosa cells after ovulation

they turn yellow

13

What are the yellow granulosa cells called

corpus luteum

14

what does the corpus luteum secrete

progesterone

15

When progesterone gets to its peak, what 2 things can occur

corpus luteum either remains preserved by hormones from new embryo
or disintegrates

16

When the corpus luteum disintegrates what happens

progesterone starts to decrease

17

What happens when progesterone levels get too low

the uterine lining detaches causing menstruation

18

what is menses

the period

19

What stimulates the release of FSH and LH

arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus produced GnRH to stimulate them

20

What is the ovary attached to the pelvic sidewall by

IP ligament

21

What are the 2 part of the ovary called

cortex
medulla

22

what part of the ovary contains the follicles

cortex

23

What are the layers of the uterus from inside to out

endometrium - basal and superficial layers
myometrium
perimetrium

24

GnRH is released in a pulsatile manner, how many types are there

3
GnRH1 is responsible for repro function

25

what does FSH do

responsible for recruiting dominant follicle
granulosa cell growth
activates aromatase activity

26

What does LH act on

theca cells- causes uptake of cholesterol and changes androgen to oestrogen

27

what does oestrogen do

acts synergistically with FSH
induces FSH and LH receptors

28

what does inhibin do

negative feedback on FSH secretion
locally enhances LH androstenedione production

29

What does activin do

stimulates FSH induced oestrogen production

30

what do sertoli cells do in the testis

support germ cells in development

31

What do germ cells do

make spermatogonia = primary and secondary spermatocytes, spermatids, testicular spermatozoa

32

Where is the site of fertilisation

ampulla

33

what happens in pre-fertilisation

cervical mucous becomes thin
muscular contractions of uterus and fallopian tubes
fimbiral end comes into contact wth ovary
peristaltic movement brings egg to ampulla

34

what is capacitation

an acrosome reaction where the sperm has to be changed to be able to penetrate the egg

35

Where does capacitation occur

in the female genital tract

36

When the sperm makes contact with the egg in fertilisation - what increases

intracellular calcium

37

The nuclei fuse to form what

diploid zygote

38

most sperm are degenerate and absorbed by the female genital tract - true/false

true
about 400-600million deposited in ejaculation
only about 200 sperm reach fertilisation site

39

What is oligomenorrhoea

reduction in frequency of periods to <9 per year

40

what is primary amenorrhoea

failure of menarche by age 16

41

What is secondary amenorrhoea

cessation of periods for >6 months in someone who previously menstruated

42

What are primary causes of secondary amenorrhoea

Turners
Kallman's

43

What are the secondary causes of secondary amenorrhoea

ovary problem- PCOS
- premature ovarian failure

uterine problem - uterine adhesions

hypothalamic dysfunction - weight loss
- over exercise
- stress
- infiltrative

pituitary - high PRL
- hypopituitarism