Flashcards in Government and Politics (Wolsey, Cromwell and Cecil) Deck (28):
Under whose reign was Wolsey present in?
When was Wolsey chancellor and chief minister?
From 1515-29 he was chancellor and was chief minister until 1529
How many jobs did he have and why is this significant?
He had several jobs - he took them for money and power
What did many people say he was the epitome of?
He was the 'epitome of everything wrong with the Catholic church' yet Henry still trusted him completely
In terms of ADMINISTRATION, what was Wolsey like?
He took little interest and made sure he kept power for himself. Controlled the Royal Seals and used the star chamber as his council
He imposed the 1526 Eltham Ordinances which proposed reform of the royal household as a means of defeating political rivals and ensuring own supremacy. Weren't actually carried out
In terms of FINANCE, what he was like?
This was his greatest weakness. He couldn't manage existing revenue or increase it, and thus never understood the true importance of trade. For example, in 1522 war broke out and Wolsey had to use a forced loan
Parliamentary grants were a form of finance
Wanted to be seen as the 'poor people's champion'. He tried to enforce laws AGAINST enclosures although he had no understanding of the root problem. He had no kind of economic assistance and was disliked by the rich
In terms of the CHURCH, what did he want to become?
He wanted to become pope and reform the church but he would've lost his power and would've had a knock on effect on his career
What was Wolsey's greatest achievement and why?
LAW, as he made the Court of chancery more powerful and revived the Court of Requests - giving poor people a voice
He established equity law as equal to common law
In terms of FOREIGN POLICY what was Wolsey like?
He was successful but only for a short period of time, as he didn't delegate with anyone and just wanted ultimate power.
Was good due to the events such as the Field of the Cloth of Gold which added to the prestige of England abroad
He imposed the 1518 Treaty of London which allied England, France and Spain but it didn't last
So to conclude with Wolsey, what can we say?
Overall, Wolsey introduced some radical and forward-thinking ideas, but was unable to carry them all out or make a substantial and lasting change inmost cases.
When was Cromwell privy councillor by?
How many jobs did he have and why is this significant?
He had one job, so he didn't have to worry about upsetting the church and having a number of offices, compared to Wolsey
In terms of ADMINISTRATION, who argues that Cromwell ended what?
Elton argues that Cromwell had ended the old medieval way of which England had been governed. So it can be argued that he was effective in forming a sort of revolution under Henry's rule as he transformed and modernised the system of government into one recognisable today
Why do people say he transformed the FINANCIAL admin?
He restored authority to the Exchequer making the chamber merely a spending department. He wanted a co-ordinated, centralised and efficient system of government (FINANCE WAS WOLSEY'S GREATEST WEAKNESS)
How did he make a difference SOCIOECONOMICALLY? What is the significance?
He dissolved the monasteries in 1536, and larger ones in 1539
He only advanced on what Wolsey had already started. Wolsey had already begun dissolving the monasteries that weren't making enough money and used it to make colleges
In terms of the CHURCH, what did he enforce and why wasn't this effective?
He enforced the Act of Supremacy in 1534, which led to the Pilgrimage of Grace in 1536, which had religious implications as well as socio-economic problems.
What did he do in terms of LAW? Significance?
Unified England and Wales through the Act of Union in 1536, bringing laws to, a once lawless, Wales. Significant as wales was a place where criminals could escape after commiting crimes in England
In terms of FOREIGN POLICY, how well did Cromwell do? Significance?
He established an alliance with German princes to ensure England and Wales remained safe in a, mainly Catholic, Europe. Significant as his alliances lasted
So to conclude, what can be said about Cromwell's work?
Financial admin changed significantly under Cromwell. However, most historians believed his actions weren't groundbreaking and that he was an opportunist.
Yet England and Wales were much more efficiently governed countries when he had finished and were in a much stronger position to survive the strains placed upon it in the two difficult decades after he had finished
When did Cecil become a member of parliament?
In 1543, and quickly developed a reputation as a fine administrator, he was the chief advisor of Elizabeth I for most of her reign
What was Cecil's contribution in the English intervention?
The English intervention in Scotland in 1560 secured the success of the Scottish reformation and subsequent expulsion of French troops from Scotland. It was significant as Cecil pushed this policy despite Elizabeth's reluctance to aid Scottish rebels
After 1485 what did Cecil have to deal with?
Cecil had to cope with the stresses of the financial and administrative burden caused by the war with Spain. He coped with this whilst struggling with his own declining death.
What happened in 1568?
Spanish treasure ships were on their way to pay Spanish soldiers in the Netherlands until they were seized, whilst sheltering in the ports along Devon + Cornwall
What did the seizure challenge and establish? Why is this significant?
It challenged Spain's power and established Cecil as Elizabeth's chief advisor
What did Cecil's strategic thinking following the seizure lead to, in what year?
He became Lord Burghley in 1571
After, what appointment, did Historians have divided views about his role?
After his appointment as Lord Treasurer in 1572, some historians claim he was a "dynamo who kept his routine business running smoothly'" and others claim he was primarily a councillor and not an administrative person. He did however take large responsibilities