GPHT LEC - Neoplasia Flashcards Preview

► Med Misc 05 > GPHT LEC - Neoplasia > Flashcards

Flashcards in GPHT LEC - Neoplasia Deck (107):
1

Means the process of“new growth”

neoplasia

2

new growth is called a __

neoplasm

3

neoplasm common name

tumor

4

– the study of tumors or neoplasms

Oncology

5

common term for all malignant tumor

cancer

6

means crab in latin

cancer

7

Abnormal mass of tissue


neoplasm

8

Growth exceeds and uncoordinated with that of the normal tissues

neoplasm

9

Persists in the same excessive manner after cessation of stimuli which evoked the change

neoplasm

10

Results from heritable genetic alterations that are passed down to the progeny of the tumor cells

neoplasm

11

Autonomous and progressive growth

neoplasm

12

Entire population of cells within a tumor arises from a single cell that has incurred a genetic change (clonal)

neoplasm

13

2 basic components of tumors (benign or malignant)

parenchyma
stroma/non-neoplastic stroma

14

basic components of tumors
made up of transformed or neoplastic cells

Parenchyma

15

basic components of tumors:
determines the biologic behavior of the neoplasm

Parenchyma

16

it is the component from which the tumor derives its name.

Parenchyma

17

basic components of tumors:
made up of connective tissue and blood vessels

Stroma / Non-neoplastic stroma

18

basic components of tumors:
carries the blood supply and provides support for the growth of parenchymal cells and is therefore crucial to the growth of the neoplasm.

Stroma / Non-neoplastic stroma

19

benign hollow cystic masses; typically they are seen in the ovary.

Cystadenomas

20

are benign epithelial neoplasms, growing on any surface, that produce microscopic or macroscopic finger-like fronds.

Papillomas

21

mass that projects above a mucosal surface, as in the gut, to form a macroscopically visible structure.

Polyp

22

Although polyps is commonly used for benign tumors, some malignant tumors may also appear as polyps. T OR F

TRUE

23

– this term is applied to benign epithelial neoplasms producing gland patterns and to those derived from glands but not necessarily exhibiting gland patterns.

Adenoma

24

A benign epithelial neoplasm arising from renal tubule cells and growing in glandlike patterns would be termed an , as would a mass of

adenoma

25

benign epithelial cells that produces no glandular patterns but has its origin in the adrenal cortex would be termed as

adenoma

26

– malignant neoplasms arising in mesenchymal tissue or its derivatives

Sarcomas

27

malignant neoplasms of epithelial cell origin with the consideration that the epithelia of the body are derived from all three germ layers

Carcinomas

28

all malignant neoplasm arising from the epithelia derived from all three germ layers are considered ---

carcinomas

29

* The mesoderm may give rise to carcinomas (epithelial) only. TRUE OR FALSE

FALSE. May be both
The mesoderm may give rise to carcinomas (epithelial) and sarcomas (mesenchymal)

30


– denotes a cancer in which the tumor cells resemble stratified squamous epithelium.

Squamous Cell Carcinoma

31

a lesion in which the neoplastic epithelial cells grow in gland patterns.

Adenocarcinoma –

32

– tumors that grow in a very undifferentiated pattern

Poorly Differentiated Carcinoma

33

– tumors that may arise from stem cells that undergo divergent differentiation.


MIXED TUMORS

34

Best example of mixed tumor

Mixed tumor of salivary gland origin

35

originated from totipotential cells that are normally present in the ovary and testis and sometimes abnormally present in sequestered midline embryonic rests.

teratomas

36


Capable of differentiating into any of the cell types found in the adult body and so, may give rise to neoplasms that mimic, in a helter- skelter fashion, bits of bone, epithelium, muscle, fat, nerve, and other tissues.

Totipotential cells

37

type of teratoma
– less differentiated

Malignant (immature) teratoma

38

type of teratoma
– all the component parts are well differentiated


Benign (mature) teratoma

39

criteria for differentiating benign and malignant neoplasms

- Differentiation and Anaplasia
- Rate of Growth
- Local Invasion
- Metastasis

40

Extent to which neoplastic cells resemble comparable normal cells, both morphologically and functionally


DIFFERENTIATION

41

Lack of differentiation -

Anaplasia

42

MORPHOLOGIC CHANGES IN ANAPLASIA



1. pleomorphism
2. Abnormal nuclear morphology
3. mitoses
4. loss of polarity

43

MORPHOLOGIC CHANGES IN ANAPLASIA
– disturbed orientation of cells

Loss of polarity

44

MORPHOLOGIC CHANGES IN ANAPLASIA
– reflects high proliferative activity of parenchymal cells

Mitoses

45

MORPHOLOGIC CHANGES IN ANAPLASIA
– abundance of DNA and dark staining (hyperchromatic),


Abnormal nuclear morphology

46

MORPHOLOGIC CHANGES IN ANAPLASIA
variation in size and shape of cells and nuclei

Pleomorphism

47

MORPHOLOGIC CHANGES IN ANAPLASIA
increase nucleo- cytoplasmic ratio (1:1),

Abnormal nuclear morphology

48

MORPHOLOGIC CHANGES IN ANAPLASIA
coarsely clumped chromatin,

Abnormal nuclear morphology

49

MORPHOLOGIC CHANGES IN ANAPLASIA
large nucleoli

Abnormal nuclear morphology

50

is a term used to describe disorderly but non-neoplastic proliferation.
= encountered in the epithelia

DYSPLASIA

51

= loss of uniformity of the individual cells and loss in their architectural orientation


DYSPLASIA

52

Dysplasia is __ if factors (e.g. Smoking) are eliminated

Reversible

53

– lesion marked by dysplastic changes involving the entire thickness of the epithelium, but NO INVASION OF BASAL EPITHELIUM

Carcinoma in situ

54

Most reliable feature of malignancy

Metastasis

55

MALIGNANT NEOPLASMS DISSEMINATE BY ONE OF THREE PATHWAYS:


Seeding within body cavities
Lymphatic spread
Hematogenous spread

56

Way of dissemination

occur when neoplasms invade a natural body cavity.



SEEDING OF CANCERS

57

Way of dissemination
Ex. carcinoma of the colon may penetrate the wall of the gut and reimplant at distant sites in the peritaoneal cavity

SEEDING OF CANCERS

58

Way of dissemination
Ex. cancers of the ovary, cover the peritoneal surfaces

SEEDING OF CANCERS

59

Way of dissemination
typical of carcinomas


LYMPHATIC SPREAD

60

Way of dissemination
depends on the site of the primary neoplasm and the natural lymphatic pathways of drainage of the site

LYMPHATIC SPREAD

61

Way of dissemination
Example: lung carcinomas arising in the respiratory passages

LYMPHATIC SPREAD

62

Way of dissemination
typical for sarcomas

HEMATOGENOUS SPREAD

63

are the most frequently involved secondary sites in hematogenous spread

LIVER and LUNGS

64

Radiant energy causes what cancer??

Squamous cell carcinoma
Basal cell carcinoma
Malignant melanoma

65

CLINICAL FEATURES OF TUMORS
symptom complexes in cancer patients that cannot be readily explained

Paraneoplastic syndromes

66

CLINICAL FEATURES OF TUMORS
expansile growth can destroy adjacent structures, endocrine gland neoplasm elaborate hormones

Local and hormonal effects

67

CLINICAL FEATURES OF TUMORS
progressive loss of body fat and lean body mass accompanied by weakness, anorexia and anemia

Cancer cachexia

68

GRADING AND STAGING OF TUMORS

Based on the degree of differentiation of tumor cells and the number of mitoses

Grading

69

GRADING AND STAGING OF TUMORS

Based on the size of the primary lesion, extent of spread to regional lymph nodes, presence or absence of metastases

Staging

70


The most common systems for staging employs the ___


TNM classification.

71

A __ score is based upon the size and/or extent of invasion.

T

72

The __ score indicates the extent of lymph node involvement.

"N"

73

The __ score indicates whether distant metastases are present.

"M"

74

Value of grading

as a guide for treatment
as a prognostic guide

75

Histologic and cytologic methods
Immunohistochemistry
Molecular diagnosis
Flow cytometry
Tumor markers

LABORATORY DIAGNOSIS OF NEOPLASIA

76

T or F
Tumor grows with age

F

77

T or F
Moles are described as tumors

T

78

T or F
Tumor may be a lesion or a neoplasia

T

79

what cells: rapidly dividing, with increased energy demand, causes the patient to be wasted/thin

cancer cells

80

tumors which can be as large as the person

bone tumors

81

T or F
Benign tumors kill the host

F

82

Suffix attached to benign tumors of mesenchymal origin

"oma"

83

basis of nomenclature for benign epithelial tumors (3)

macroscopic pattern
microscopic pattern
cells of origin

84

benign tumor consisting of cystic glands

cystadenoma

85

term for glands

adenoma

86

term for finger-like projections

papilla

87

benign tumor, with finger-like projections in the stratified squamous
what is the name

squamous papilloma

88

benign tumor, with finger-like projections in the transitional epithelium
what is the name

transitional papilloma

89

benign tumor, with finger-like projections in the cuboidal or columnar
what is the name

no such thing

90

T or F
Polyps are microscopically visible only

F

91

T or F
Malignant tumors may also appear as polyps

T

92

T or F
Polyps are commonly used for benign tumors

T

93

Term used to indicate non-neoplastic growth that form polyploid masses

Polyps

94

Type of polyp with a stalk/ attached to the lining of epithelium

pedunculated polyp

95

Type of polyp without a stalk just a bump

Sessile polyp

96

Nomenclature
benign epithelial neoplasm from renal tubule cells, growing in glandlike patterns

Adenoma

97

Nomenclature
benign epithelial neoplasm, no glandular patterns produced, originates in adrenal cortex

Adenoma

98

Sarcomas are designated by __

histogenesis (cell type of which they are composed)

99

germ layer which produced the skin

ectoderm

100

germ layer which produced the renal tubular epithelium

mesoderm

101

germ layer which produced the lining epithelium of gut

endoderm

102

malignant neoplasm arising from the epithelia derived from all 3 germ layers are considered

carcinoma

103

mesoderm may give rise to what kinds of malignant tumors

carcinoma (epithelial)
sarcoma (mesenchymal)

104

germ layer which gives rise to both carcinomas and sarcomas

mesoderm

105

tetratomas normally present in what organs/body part

ovary and testis

106

tetratomas abnormally present in ___

sequestered midline embryonic rests

107

common epithelium formed in teratomas

stratified squamous

Decks in ► Med Misc 05 Class (295):