GPHT - Neoplasia II Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in GPHT - Neoplasia II Deck (109):
1

Cyst wall is composed of __

skin

2

where most divergent tissue (of teratoma) emerge

rokitansky protruberance

3

functional tissue from a teratoma

endocrine tissue

4

T or F
Most cystic tumors are benign

T

5

T or F
Solid tumors are malignant

T

6

Most teratomas are benign or malignant

benign

7

the most common benign germ cell tumor

Dermoid cysts or mature cystic teratomas

8

most common neoplasm of the ovary

Dermoid cysts or mature cystic teratomas

9

germ cell tumor of the testicle that is always malignant

seminoma

10

T or F
Seminoma may be benign or malignant

False (always malignant)

11

Tumors ending in "-oma" but are ALWAYS malignant (3)

Seminoma
Melanoma
Lymphoma

12

Benign form of lymphoma (always malignant)

lymphadenopathy

13

Benign form of melanoma

nevus or mole

14

T or F
Leukemia may be benign or malignant

F (always malignant)

15

multiple adenomatous polyps are also known as

tubulovillous adenomas

16

genetic syndrome in which an abnormal genetic mutation leads to development of multiple neoplasms in colon
genetic abnormalities may be inherited or acquired

familial adenomatous polyposis

17

type of tumor (benign or malignant) which does not eat up normal tissue

benign

18

type of tumor (benign or malignant) which infiltrate, go inside

malignant

19

condition in which there are cystic glands but no tumor, just a lesion

fibrocystic change

20

lesions with cystic glands, not a tumor

fibrocystic change

21

identify if benign or malignant
fungating mass ulcerating the skin

malignant

22

identify if benign or malignant
well-circumscribed
with demarcation

benign

23

identify if benign or malignant
small, movable

benign

24

identify if benign or malignant
proliferating fibrocollagenous lesions
compressed glands

benign

25

identify the condition
Malignant
bladder filled up with water
fingerlike papillomas

papillary urothelial carcinoma

26

identify the condition
benign
bladder filled up with water
fingerlike papillomas

urothelial papilloma

27

hallmark of malignancy

metastasis

28

identify if benign or malignant
compress adjacent tissue

benign

29

tumor/neoplasms in which there is metastasis but not malignant (2)

leiomyoma
giant tumor of bone

30

identify if benign or malignant
pleomorphic, anaplastic

malignant

31

identify if benign or malignant
growth
slow with expansion, displacement

benign

32

identify if benign or malignant
growth slow with compression

benign

33

identify if benign or malignant
growth
compressive atrophy of surrounding tissue

benign

34

identify if benign or malignant
growth
rapid with destruction

malignant

35

identify if benign or malignant
growth
rapid with infiltration

malignant

36

identify if benign or malignant
growth
rapid with
thigmotaxis

malignant

37

identify if benign or malignant
growth
rapid with vascular invasion

malignant

38

identify if benign or malignant
growth
rapid with metastases

malignant

39

identify if benign or malignant
size: increases slowly,

benign

40

identify if benign or malignant
size: tumor may become very large (knapsack tumor)

benign

41

identify if benign or malignant
size: increases rapidly

malignant

42

identify if benign or malignant
capsule is present

benign

43

identify if benign or malignant

tumor can be surgically enucleated from capsule due to compression of local stroma

benign

44

identify if benign or malignant

capsule is partially or entirely absent

malignant

45

identify if benign or malignant

tumor frequently recurs after resection

malignant

46

histologic findings:
perfect image of histologic mother tissue with low mitosis count

benign

47

histologic findings:
absence of necrosis

benign

48

histologic findings: maneuverable

benign

49

histologic findings:
non-maneuverable

malignant

50

histologic findings:
primitive image of histologic mother tissue with high mitosis count and necrosis

malignant

51

variability of cell size: cellular and nuclear isomorphism

benign

52

variability of cell size:
cellular and nuclear polymorphism

malignant

53

nuclear euploidy (uniform coloration of nuclei) with exception of endocrine tumors, which exhibit nuclear polyploidy

benign

54

tumors with nuclear polyploidy

endocrine tumors

55

nuclear aneuploidy, polyploidy, polychromasia (varying coloration of nuclei)

malignant

56

N:C ratio is normal

benign

57

N:C ratio is high [nuclei predominate]

malignant

58

nucleoli: invisible or small and round

benign

59

nucleoli: enlarged and irregular

malignant

60

clinical course: usually asymptomatic except for compression symptoms

benign

61

clinical course: produce wide range of late symptoms

malignant

62

clinical course: do not recur or metastasize

benign

63

clinical course: frequently recur or metastasize

malignant

64

T or F: Multiple tumors have less chance of malignancy

T

65

T or F: Solitary tumor may be malignant

T

66

2 Hallmarks of malignancy

Metastasis
Anaplasia

67

T or F: Mitosis can be a sole basis of malignancy

False

68

T or F: There are benign tumors with high mitotic rate

True

69

How many mitotic figures/hpf for a tumor to be considered malignant

> 10

70

T or F: Abnormal mitoses are highly indicative of malignancy

T

71

Identify if benign or malignant:
presence of tripole

malignant
tripole is an abnormal mitotic figure

72

T or F: Proliferation in the stratified squamous epithelium NORMALLY occurs in the basal layer

True

73

Identify if malignant or benign: Proliferation of stratified squamous epithelium in UPPER LAYER

Malignant

74

T or F: Dysplasia encountered in mesenchyme

False: Dysplasia encountered in epithelia

75

T or F: Dysplasia is reversible

True. Reversible if factors (like smoking) are eliminated

76

what carcinoma
seeding as pathway of dissemination
penetrates the wall of the gut
reimplant at distant sites in the peritoneal cavity

carcinoma of colon

77

identify the pathway of dissemination
cancers of the ovary (cover the peritoneal surfaces)

seeding within body cavities

78

pattern of lymph node involvement depends on (2)

site of primary neoplasm
pathways of drainage

79

T or F: Veins are less readily penetrated than arteries

F: Arteries less readily penetrated than the veins

80

T or F: Exposure to chemical carcinogens results in permanent DNA damage

True

81

__ induce tumors in initiated cells (reversible)

spromoters

82

radiant energy/UV rays cause what types of cancer (3)

squamous cell carcinoma
basal cell carcinoma
malignant carcinoma

83

Human papilloma virus cause what cancer (2)

squamous papillomas (Warts)
carcinoma of cervix

84

What are the 3 carcinogenic agents

Chemical
Radiant
Oncogenic viruses/microbes

85

Epstein-Barr virus causes (2)

Burkitt lymphoma
nasopharyngeal carcinoma

86

HBV causes

hepatocellular carcinoma

87

Helicobacter pylori causes (2)

gastric carcinoma, gastric lymphoma

88

gastric carcinoma, gastric lymphoma caused by

H. pylori

89

hepatocellular carcinoma caused by

HBV

90

Burkitt lymphoma
nasopharyngeal carcinoma
caused by

EBV

91

squamous papillomas (Warts)
carcinoma of cervix
Caused by

HPV

92

T or F: Expansile growth can destroy adjacent structures

T

93

T or F: Endocrine gland neoplasm elaborate hormones

T

94

Grading is based on (2)

differentiation of tumor cells
number of mitoses

95

this tells how DEEP tumor infiltrates

Staging

96

this tells how closely it RESEMBLES normal component

Grading

97

a higher grade means (closer, farther) appearance from normal

farther

98

Staging is based on (3)

size of primary lesion
extent of spread to regional lymph nodes
presence/absence of metastases

99

What can you conclude if the person has metastatic adenocarcinoma but has spread to the bone

metastatic adenocarcinoma does not occur in bone, thus the cancer is METASTATIC

100

Which between staging and grading has implication on biologic behavior

grading

101

the higher the grade, ___ aggressive,

more aggressive

102

the higher the grade, what is the rate of proliferation

rapid

103

the lower the grade, what is the rate of proliferation

slowly

104

These scores in TNM classification depend on the organ

T and N

105

Tissue or part of the body that do not proliferate very much

bone

106

At what grade does chemo start?

3

107

Why does chemo do not have much effect on osteosarcoma

bone does not proliferate very much
chemo kills proliferating and non-proliferating cells
thus chemo more effective in proliferating cells

108

lower grades need what kind of treatment

surgery

109

higher grades need what kind of treatment

radiation

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