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Flashcards in Grafting terminology Deck (20):

Bark slipping

A condition which occurs during active cambium growth, when the bark
separates very easily from the wood on a tree. This happens in Spring and early Summer after
leaf-out, and usually again in late summer.


Bench Grafting

Done with bare root rootstocks or rootstocks in containers and is done inside "on the bench"



A white tissue formed from the parenchyma cells of the plant in which is a response to cutting the plant as well as helping with the healing process. A callus can also be made by a waxy substance or even nail polish



The cambium is a region of
the stem where the vascular
system is made.

Cambial initials make phloem
cells to the outer (bark) side
of the stem, while xylem is
made to the inner section of
the stem.


Clonal rootstocks

Clonal rootstocks are
those vegetatively
propagated by stool
layering, rooted cuttings,
or micropropagation.

Rootstock of citrus is
produced from apomictic
seed and is genetically


Crown grafting

Made at root-shoot junction


Double working

Double working may be
done in certain fruit tree
grafts where the scion and
rootstock are incompatible,
but the interstock is
compatible with both the
scion and rootstock.

An interstock or interstem
lies between the scion
and the rootstock.

This is called double


Field grafting

Done in the field/nursery/greenhouse on any rootstock.


Grafting compatibility

The ability of two different
plants, grafted together, to
produce a successful union and
to develop satisfactorily into
one composite plant is termed
graft compatibility.


Grafting and budding knives

Specialized knives made specifically for the grafting process.


Robot grafting machines

Takes human labor out of the picture and displaced many people. Less expensive in the long-term but more expensive in short-term.



An interstock or interstem
lies between the scion
and the rootstock.

This is called double


Rootstock (understock)

Also called the stock or

The lower or underground
portion of the graft.

Could be a seedling, cutting
or root piece.



Top part of the graft.

A short piece of shoot or
a single bud.


Seedling rootstocks

Seedling rootstock may show
genetic variation leading to
variability in growth and
performance of the scion

Seedling rootstocks
propagated from seed can be
mass-produced relatively
simply and economically.

They are usually virus-free.

Seedling rootstocks tend to
more deeper rooted and more
firmly anchored plants than
clonal rootstocks.



Top grafting

Grafts made at the top of rootstock



is connecting two or more tissues together in a
manner that permits union and subsequent growth into a
single plant

During grafting the cambial
regions of the scion and
rootstock must line up so
that the vascular systems can
reattach in the graft union.


Cleft grafting

Used a lot to re-work already established trees. Use specialized cleft grafting tool. The tool digs into the rootstock (excises) and then from that cleft made into the stock the scions are then inserted to either side of the branch and the cambium lined up along the outer edge. One graft takes place only one scion will be obtained.


Splice or whip graft

Very common and simple. Not flexible enough to permit a tight fit when a tongue is made. Wrapped or tied. You have to line up the cambium with the cambium.


Whip and Tongue

Similar to splice except that a second reverse tongue. Tighter fit and secures that union better. Highly successful if procedure is followed correctly.