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Flashcards in Gram Negatives Deck (70)
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1

Pathogenic categories of E. coli

enterotoxigenic (ETEC)
Enteropathogenic (EPEC)
enteroinvasive (EIEC)
Enterohemorrhagic (EHEC)
Necrotoxigenic (NTEC)

2

Which strain of E. coli produces heat-stable (ST) and heat-labile (LT) toxins?

enterotoxigenic

3

How does EPEC cause disease?

attaches to epithelial cells and destroys them (no toxin production)

4

this e. coli strain causes neonatal watery diarrhea by penetrating epithelial cells

EIEC

5

EHEC produces _____ toxins which are similar to Shiga toxins; what do they cause?

Virotoxins
cause edema disease

6

Survival of colibacillosis in poultry leads to what disease?

fibrinopurulent airsacculitis (must condemn carcass)

7

Common to see an asymptomatic carrier state with _________?

Salmonella

8

T/F: ALL salmonella can be invasive

True (only SOME e. coli can)

9

Two important virulence factors for salmonella?

Invasiveness
LPS

10

Causes typhoid fever in humans

Salmonella typhi

11

Strain of salmonella that's most prevalent in animal infections

Salmonella typhimurium

12

Causes fowl typhoid

Salmonella gallinarum

13

Which strain of salmonella can infect a variety of animals and is also responsible for GE in humans

Salmonella enteritidis

14

Is salmonella extra or intracellular?

intracellular

15

Important in catfish industry; causes skin lesions and septicemia in catfish

Edwardsiella ictaluri

16

Commonly causes cytitis and UTIs

Proteus spp.

17

Which gram negative forms intensively red pigmented colonies?

Serratia

18

Etiologic agent of the plague?

Yersinia pestis

19

Which domestic spp. can contract the plague? What are the 2 disease forms?

Cats
Bubonic form--buboes near fleabite
pneumonic form--aerosol transmission

20

Important foodborne pathogen that can be isolated using cold enrichment

Yersinia enterocolitica

21

T/F: Freezing will kill enterbacteriaceae

False

22

Why don't bacterin vaccines work for salmonella?

doesn't elicit necessary cell-mediated immunity

23

Etiologic agent of cattle shipping fever

Mannheimia haemolytica

24

Is M. haemolytica intracelluar?

No

25

Virulence factors of M. haemolytica. Which are protective antigens?

Leukotoxin
Capsule
*BOTH*

26

How does leukotoxin work?

forms pores in leukocytes and causes hydrolytic enzymes to leak out, causing tissue damage and amplifying the immune response

27

Most of the injury from disease with M. haemolytica is caused by

host immune system over response

28

5 diseases that can be caused by Pasteurella multocida

Bronchopneumonia
hemorrhagic septicemia
Fowl cholera
Atrophic rhinitis
Snuffles

29

How can you differentiate hemorrhagic septicemia from anthrax?

Gram stain

30

Why are bacertins not ideal for fowl cholera?

only protect from homologous strains

31

P. multocida's dermonecrotic toxin targets what?

osteoclasts (causes bone breakdown)

32

Name the associated spp.
Brucella:
abortus
melitensis
suis
canis
ovis

cattle
goats
pigs
dogs
sheep

33

Is brucella a commensal organism?

NO; a positive culture is diagnostic

34

Classic clinical sign of infection with brucella

late term abortion

35

Importance of erytritol?

located in high concentrations in bovine repro tract; brucella has tropism for it

36

Which brucella spp. causes the most serious disease in humans?

B. melitensis

37

Which brucella spp. most commonly infects humans? why?

B. suis; prolonged bacteriemic stage

38

3 diseases associated with Bordetella bronchiseptica

kennel cough
atrophic rhinits
snuffles

39

Two diseases shared by P. multocida and B. bronchiseptica?

Snuffles
Atrophic rhinitis

40

How does B. bronchiseptica cause a cough?

destroys ciliated epithelium

41

How does B. bronchiseptica's dermonecrotic toxin differ from P. multocida's? can they be present in disease together?

Targets osteoblasts (prevents new bone formation)
Yes

42

The live avirulent vaccine for B. bronchiseptica offers what type of immunity?

mucosal

43

why does the acellular vaccine for B. bronchiseptica offer the lowest risk of toxicity?

doesn't contain LPS

44

Disease caused by Bordetella avium?

turkey coryza

45

Which is less fastidious:
Haemophilus
Histophilus

Histophilus (doesn't need Factors X or V)

46

TEME is caused by

Haemophils somnus/ Histophilus somni

47

3 main types of disease caused by histophilus/haemophilus?

repro tract
respiratory tract
joints

48

Which bacteria has Fc receptors as a virulence factor? What do they do?

Haemophilus/histophilus
bind host Abs to prevent lysis

49

Causes Glasser's disease in pig

Haemophils parasuis

50

Causes coryza of chickens

Avibacterium paragallinarum

51

Causes contagious equine metritis (CEM)

Taylorella equigenitalis

52

2 important species of actinobacillus

A. pleuropneumoniae
A. suis

53

A. pleuropneumoniae cyottoxins are similar to?

Leukotoxins from M. haemolytica (pore-forming)

54

Subclinical infections by A. pleuropneumoniae stimulated by stress tend to cause which form of disease

peracute/acute

55

Causes fatal septicemia of piglets

A. suis

56

Which two sites should not be cultured when checking for actinobacillus infection? Why?

Tonsils and URT
commensal to these areas

57

Causes wooden tongue in cattle

A. lignieresii

58

Causes sleepy foal disease

A. equuli

59

Causative agent of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis?

Moraxella bovis

60

M. bovis can be tramitted by

face flies
direct contact

61

Photophobia and conjuctivitis are associated with?

M. bovis infection (infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis)

62

One of the most resistant bacteria known

Pseudomonas aeruginosa

63

Etiologic agent of Tularemia

Francisella tularensis

64

Two unique things about F. tularensis

VERY invasive (can penetrate skin)
requires cysteine for growth

65

How can tularemia be transmitted?

By blood sucking arthorpods from infect rabbits (rabbit fever)

66

Sheep that are malnourished and covered in ticks are likely to have what diseae

ovine tularemia

67

Which spirochete can be readily grown in culture?

Borrelia (the rest cannot be cultured)

68

Etiologic agent of lyme disease

Borrelia burgdorferi

69

Which disease is characterized by acute onset of lamness or chronic, intermittent lameness

lyme disease

70

Causative agents of
1) fowl spirochetosis
2) swine dysentery

Borrelia anserine

brachyspira hyodysenteriae