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Flashcards in Grammar Deck (104):
1

Future (St)

 سـ + present

2

Negating Present

لا + present

3

Negating past

لٓم + present

take out the middle vowel. ie.

احتاج - لم احتج إلى

drop ن

4

Negating future

Standard: لن + present Spoken: ما رح + present

5

Negating in spoken

ما + present or past

6

Hollow Verb

Vowel in middle Dropped in 1st and 2nd person, 3rd Person stays the same (in past tense)

7

Defective Verb

Vowel at the end ى becomes  ي

(1st and 2nd person only)

8

Weak verb

ا - و

9

Comparative

أٓ+root + من

 

مِن أٓقدم

 

10

Superlative

Comparative + object

11

2 verbs

Conjugate both verbs 1st verb أن - second verb present

(2nd becomes subjunctive, drop ن)

12

Non-human Plural

The modern Chairs

الكراسي ـــــــــــــــ

 

Takes singular feminine adjective.

الكراسي الحديثة

13

Idafa

Last noun is definite (الـ)

Drop ن in first word

14

Because

1. بسبب because of + noun

2. لِأن if followed by noun . Conjugate if followed by verb

3. لِـ in order to

4. عشان spoken, but don't need to conjugate

15

Nisba

To make a noun into an adjective.

Profession - professional etc.

Remove ة, ي and الـ Add ـي

16

Pronouns - singular

I - أنا

You m - أنتٓ

You f - أنتِ

He - هو

She - هي

17

Pronouns - plural

We - نٓحنُ

You pl m - أنتم

You pl f - أنتُن

They m - هُم

They f - هُن

17

Pronouns - dual

We - نَحْنُ

You dual m - أنتُما

You dual f - أنتُما

They dual m - هُما

They dual f - هُما

18

Adjectives - Permanent

Root + ي (or و) in 2nd to last letter i.e. جميل كبير قديم

19

Adjectives - Temporary

'Feeling' or short term state (cold, hungry, thirsty etc.) Root + ا ن i.e. تعبان - tired جوعان - hungry عٓطشان - thirsty نمسان - sleepy حجلان - shy بردان - feeling cold حرّان - feeling hot

20

Adverbs

1) adding بشكل 'In a way' I.e. بشكل سريع - in a quick way

2) adding ـاً '...ly' I.e. سريعاً - quickly

3) adding بِـ 'With the action' I.e. بسرعة - with speed

21

Verbal sentences

1st verb is in singular even if plural

22

'That'

 

I know that

أٓنَّ

Anna Conjugate

 

أعرِف أٓنَّ

23

Verily / indeed

إِنَّ Inna

 

Conjugate

Standard only

24

To make the infinitive

 

I want 'to visit'

أٓنْ أريد أَنْ أزور

Not used in spoken

25

About

عن

26

To want - 2 ways

1) verb أرادٓ / يُرِيد Hollow verb, conjugated as a verb Standard only

2) بدّ + pronoun Conjugate with possessive pronouns Spoken only Most common

27

To want Spoken

بدّي

 

بدّي

بدٓك

بدِك

بده

بدها

بدنا

بدهم

بدهن

28

To have

عِند + possessive pronouns

عِندي

عِندٓك

عِندِك

عِندنا

عنده

عندها

عندهم

عندهن

29

A beautiful river

(Adjective Matching)

نهر جميل

30

A beautiful girl

(Adjective Matching)

بنت جميلة

31

A new teacher

(Adjective Matching)

مدرّس جديد

32

A new car

(Adjective matching)

سيّارة جديدة

33

Describing Word

'The Objecect is something'

The river is beautiful

 

النهر جميل

34

Describing Word

'The Objecect is something'

The car is new

السيّارة جديدة

35

Describing Definite Nouns

The something, The adjective

'The new teacher'

المدرّس ــــــــــــــــ

المدرّس الجديد

36

Positional

The newspaper is on the chair

الجريدة ــــــــ الكُرسي

الجريدة على الكُرسي

37

Positional

There is a dog under the table

هناك كلب ـــــــ المائدة

هناك كلب تَحتَ المائدة

38

Positional

The school is on the left

المَدرسة ـــــــ ـــــــــ

المَدرسة على اليسار

39

Positional

We went to the right

ذَهبنا ـــــــــــ ــــــــــــ

ذَهَبنا إلى اليمين

40

Positional

The window is between the cupboard and the chair.

الشبّاك ـــــــــــ الخزانة والكرسي

 

الشبّاك بين الخزانة والكرسي

41

Positional

There are cars infront of the house

هناك سيّارات ــــــــــ البيت

 

هناك سيّارات أمام البيت

42

Positional

The bed is beside the door

السرير ـــــــــــــ الباب

 

السرير بجانب الباب

43

Comparatives

The palace is older than the mosque

القصر ـــــــ ــــــــ المسجد

 

القصر أقدم من المسجد

44

Comparatives

This car is faster than that car

هذه السيّرة ـــــــ ــــــــ تاك السيّرة

هذه السيّرا أسرع من تلك السيّرة

45

Superlative

The fastest car

ــــــــــ سيّارة

أسرع سيّارة

46

Superlative

The most beautiful river

ـــــــــــ نهر

أجمل نهر

47

As for (أمّا ....ف)

 

As for the street, it is quiet

   ـــــــ الشارع _ هادئ

 

أمّا الشارع فهو هادئ

48

Therefore or For That Reason

لذاك

For that reason it is suitable for active people only

ـــــ ـــــــ مناسبة للنشيطين فَقَط

لذلك فهي مناسبة للنشيطين فَقَط

49

Pronouns

My Book

كِتَابِي

50

Pronouns

Our Book

كِتَاُبنا

51

Pronouns

Your Book (sing m)

كِتَابَك

52

Pronouns

Your Book (Dual)

كِتَابَكُمَا

53

Pronouns

Your Book (Pl m)

كِتَابَكُمْ

54

Pronouns

Your Book (sing f)

كِتَابكِ

55

Pronouns

Your Book (Pl f)

كِتَابكُنَّ

56

Pronouns

His Book

كِتَابهُ

57

Pronouns

Her Book

كِتَابها

58

Pronouns

Their Book (dual)

كِتَابهُمَا

59

Pronouns

Their Book (pl m)

كِتَابهُمْ

60

Pronouns

Their Book (pl f)

كِتَابهُنَّ

61

They (m) open

ـــــــــــــــــ   يَفتَحون

هُم يفتحون

62

You (pl) open

 

ـــــــــ تَفتَحون

أنتُم تفتحون

63

Jussive

Nagating Past = لم + present - ن

64

Nominitive Case = Subject + ُ

65

Accusative = Object + َ

66

Genetive = After Preposition + ِ

67

In Order To


 

 

حتى

+ present

- ن

68

Before a verb

After a Verb

+ ما

Before I go

After I eat

قبل ما أذهب

 

بعد ما أكل

69

I Must...

(It is necessary that I)

I must go

I must try

من الازم أن أذهب

 

من الازم أن أحاول

70

I Had to

(I must in past tense)

 

I had to say

كان من الأزم أن أقول

71

I have (recently done something)

 

I have spoken to him

 

للتو تكلمته

 

للتو + past

72

Either .... or

 

Did you eat or drink?

 

تكل ــــــــــ تشرب؟

إما .... أم

 

كلت أم شربت؟

73

I had (I did have)

I had to (It was necessary for me)

كان عندي

 

كان من لازم عن

74

Question marker

هل

written MSA only

75

ون.......     If they are not doing anything (nominative)

ين ........    Anthing else

 

Doing something, verbs, possessies etc

 

I met the teachers

قبالت المدرِّسين

76

Who / Which

(referring to someone or somebody)

Definite only

Who M - الّذِي

Who F - الَّتِي

Who pl M - النِين

Who pl F - اللواتي

Followed by returner (ie ه ها)

 

The Man who I saw

الرجل الّذِي رأيته

77

Adjectives

Match

1) Gender - البنت الصغيرة

2) Number - الأولاد الصغار

3) Definition -

4) Case

 

The British Embassy

The Embassy of Britain

السفارة البريطانية

سفارة بريطانيا

78

Some / Most / etc

Amount + ال + plural

 

Some - بعض + ال + ج

All - كل + ال + ج

Most - هعطم + ال + ج

A number - عِدَّة + ال + ج

A number of questions

عِدَّة الأسؤلة

79

'To' - Spoken

I want to go to the Office

عا = إلى = لـ

بدّي اروح عالمكتب

 

80

Pronunciation of

ق

ahh

81

Can (To be able to)

Sp & Short

Q image thumb

في + ني / ك / نا / ه / ها / كم / هم

A image thumb
82

What

Q image thumb

شو

A image thumb
83

Why

Q image thumb

ليش

A image thumb
84

Future (Sp)

 رح + present

85

Used to

 

He used to speak

We were speaking

كان + present

 

كان بيحكي

كنا منحكي

86

Pronounciation in Levantine Dialects

 

For all present tense verbs (first one)

بـ + normal conjugated verb

except for نحن

مـ + 'we' conjugated verb

87

A Case 1

كان / ليس / صار

the 'information' (2nd word) has اً

(indefinite & masc only)

كان الولد صغيراً

88

A Case 2

إن / أن / لكن

The 'beginning' (subject) has اً

or the beginning goes from ون to ين

or the beginning goes from ان to ين

 

(indefinite & masc only)

 

89

A Case 3

When to go into A Case:

- كان / ليس / صار

- Accusation / object

- Adverbs

- Feelings

- Numbers 11 - 99 (Noun is in A-case, singular and indefinite)

90

Writing 'Qs'

  • كان / لبي / صار
  • ون / ين - ان / ين
  • Indefinite nouns (اً)
  • Adjectives - matching
  • Numbers
  • Idafa (drop ن in 1st)

91

"I used to..."

Past Progressive -

Present + كان

لما منت بالصعودية كنت أقرا كل ويم

When I was in Saudi I used to read every day

92

"I had to ..... (when)"

Pluperfect

Past + كان

كانوا خلصوا الحكي لما خليل إجا

They had finished speaking when Khaleel came.

93

"I was going to ..... (when)"

Past Future

Present + كان + رح

كانت رح تحكي مع مديرا بس بطّلت

She was going to speak with her manager but she stopped

94

"I will have ...."

Past + رح + يكون

بعد شهر من هلق رح تكون برطانيا قرّرت إزا رح تضل

After a month from now, Britain will have decided if to remain

95

Ongoing

Present + عم

"I am continuing to write."

عم أكتب

96

'General Concepts'

are definite الـ

97

Superlative - Colloquial

شي + Comparative

 

The most beautiful girl

The best

أحلى شي بنت

أحسن شي

98

If - Standard

  • If hypothetical - لو (Low)
  • If neutral - إن (ina)
  • If certaintiy - إذا

 

All past tense

Were he to go, he would see

If he went he would see

If he goes he will see

لو ذهب لَرأى

إن دهب رأى

إذا ذهب رأى

99

If - Colloquial

  • Expected - إذا izza
  • Low probability - لو low

 

If he goes he will see

If he goes he will probably see

إذا يروح رح يشوف

لو راح ممكن رح شوف

100

This - Colloquial

  • This m - هاد haaed
  • This f - هاي haay
  • This pl - هدول

 

Compresses to noun - 'hay' or 'hal'

This car - هالسيارة haysayara

101

Relative Clause

Indefinite Noun followed by verb is a relative clause

'that' is understood

 

Definite Noun followed by a verb needs 'اللي

102

Passive (standard)

it has been completed

تمّ + Verbal Noun

تمّ التصوير

the photography has been completed (was) ...

تمّ تصوير المكان

the area was photographed

103

Passive (Colloquial)

They did...

صوروا المكان

The place was photographed

or Form V and Form VII