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Flashcards in Grammer Simple Deck (26):
1

Misplaced apostrophes

The rules:

Apostrophes indicate possession – something belonging to something or someone else.
To indicate something belonging to one person, the apostrophe goes before the ‘s’. For instance, “The girl’s horse.”
To indicate something belonging to more than one person, put the apostrophe after the ‘s’. For example, “The girls’ horse.”
Apostrophes are also used to indicate a contracted word. For example, “don’t” uses an apostrophe to indicate that the word is missing the “o” from “do not”.
Apostrophes are never used to make a word plural, even when a word is in number form, as in a date.
How not to do it:

The horse’s are in the field
Pen’s for sale
In the 1980’s
Janes horse is over there
The girls dresses are ready for them to collect
How to do it properly:

The horses are in the field
Pens for sale
In the 1980s
We didn’t want to do it
Jane’s horse is over there
The girls’ dresses are ready for them to collect

2

It it's

3. Its/it’s
We said earlier that apostrophes should be used to indicate possession, but there is one exception to this rule, and that is the word “it”. Unsurprisingly, this exception gets lots of people confused.

The rules:

“It’s” is only ever used when short for “it is”.
“Its” indicates something belonging to something that isn’t masculine or feminine (like “his” and “hers”, but used when you’re not talking about a person).
If it helps, remember that inanimate objects can’t really possess something in the way a human can.
How not to do it:

Its snowing outside
The sofa looks great with it’s new cover
How to do it properly:

It’s snowing outside
The sofa looks great with its new cover

3

Fewer/less



The fact that many people don't know the difference between “fewer” and “less” is reflected in the number of supermarket checkout aisles designated for “10 items or less”. The mistake most people make is using “less” when they actually mean “fewer”, rather than the other way round.

The rules:

How not to do it:

How to do it properly:

7. Amount/number

These two work in the same way as “less” and “fewer”, referring respectively to commodities and individual items.

The rules:

How not to do it:

How to do it properly:

“Their” indicates possession – something belonging to them.

“They're” is short for “they are”.

Their going to be here soon

We should contact they're agent

Can we use there boat?

Their is an argument that says

They're going to be here soon

We should contact their agent

Can we use their boat?

There is an argument that says

“Fewer” refers to items you can count individually.

“Less” refers to a commodity, such as sand or water, that you can't count individually.

There are less cakes now

Ten items or less

There are fewer cakes now

Ten items or fewer

Less sand

Fewer grains of sand

4

Pleural or singular verb

When two singular subjects are connected by or, use a singular verb. The same is true for either/or and neither/nor.

John or Mary is coming tonight.
Either coffee or tea is fine.
Neither John nor Mary was late.

5

Collective noun


Treat collective nouns (eg committee, company, board of directors) as singular OR plural. In BrE a collective noun is usually treated as plural, needing a plural verb and pronoun. In AmE a collective noun is often treated as singular, needing a singular verb and pronoun.



The committee are having sandwiches for lunch. Then they will go to London. (typically BrE)
The BBC have changed their logo. (typically BrE)
My family likes going to the zoo. (typically AmE)
CNN has changed its logo. (typically AmE)

6

Fewer vs less

“Fewer” refers to items you can count individually.
“Less” refers to a commodity, such as sand or water, that you can’t count individually.

How NOT to do it:

There are less cakes now
Ten items or less
How to do it properly:

There are fewer cakes now
Ten items or fewer
Less sand
Fewer grains of sand

7

Than vs Then

The rules:

“Than” is used in comparisons.
“Then” is used to indicate something following something else in time, as in step-by-step instructions, or planning a schedule (“we’ll go there then there”).
How not to do it:

She was better at it then him
It was more then enough
How to do it properly:

She was better at it than him
It was more than enough
We’ll go to the baker first, then the coffee shop
10. Me/myself/I

8

Me,myself,my

The matter of how to refer to oneself causes all manner of conundrums, particularly when referring to another person in the same sentence. Here’s how to remember whether to use “me”, “myself” or “I”.



The rules:

When referring to yourself and someone else, put their name first in the sentence.
Choose “me” or “I” by removing their name and seeing which sounds right.
For example, with the sentence “John and I are off to the circus”, you wouldn’t say “me is off to the circus” if it was just you; you’d say “I am off to the circus”. Therefore when talking about going with someone else, you say “John and I”.
You only use “myself” if you’ve already used “I”, making you the subject of the sentence.


How not to do it:

Me and John are off to the circus
Myself and John are going into town
Give it to John and I to look after
How to do it properly:

John and I are off to the circus
John and I are going into town
Give it to John and me to look after
I’ll deal with it myself
I thought to myself
11. Invite/invitation

9

12. Who/whose

The rules:

“Who” refers to the subject of a sentence; “whom” refers to the object.

“Who” and “whom” work in the same way as “he” or “him”. You can work out which you should use by asking yourself the following:

“Who did this? He did” – so “who” is correct. “Whom should I invite? Invite him” – so “whom” is correct.
“That” is often used incorrectly in place of “who” or “whom”.

When referring to a person, you should not use the word “that”.

How not to do it:

Who shall I invite?
Whom is responsible?
He was the only person that wanted to come
How to do it properly:

Whom shall I invite?
Who is responsible?
He was the only person who wanted to come

10

13. Affect/effect


The rules:

Affect is a verb – “to affect” – meaning to influence or have an impact on something.
Effect is the noun – “a positive effect” – referring to the result of being affected by something.

There is also a verb “to effect”, meaning to bring something about – “to effect a change”. However, this is not very commonly used, so we’ve left it out of the examples below to avoid confusion.

How not to do it:

He waited for the medicine to have an affect
They were directly effected by the flooding



How to do it properly:

He waited for the medicine to have an effect
They were directly affected by the flooding

11

Compound sentences

They have two independent clauses joined by co ordinator (conjunction )
FANBOYS
For,and,but,or,yet,so
Co-ordinator always preceded by comma

Two sub clauses before and after coordinator should be capable of standing independently

12

Complex sentence

One independent and one depende clause.

Always has a subordinator(although,when,after,because,sinceor has relative pronoun (that,which,who)

13

I.e vs E.g.
How not to do it:

He waited for the medicine to have an affect
They were directly effected by the flooding
How to do it properly:

He waited for the medicine to have an effect
They were directly affected by the flooding

How not to do it:

He liked many different cheeses, i.e. cheddar, camembert and brie.
He objects to the changes – e.g. he won’t be accepting them.
How to do it properly:

He liked many different cheeses, e.g. cheddar, camembert and brie.
He objects to the changes – i.e. he won’t be accepting them.

14

Collective noun


Treat collective nouns (eg committee, company, board of directors) as singular OR plural. In BrE a collective noun is usually treated as plural, needing a plural verb and pronoun. In AmE a collective noun is often treated as singular, needing a singular verb and pronoun.

The committee are having sandwiches for lunch. Then they will go to London. (typically BrE)
The BBC have changed their logo. (typically BrE)
My family likes going to the zoo. (typically AmE)
CNN has changed its logo. (typically AmE)

15

Hyphens Between Words

Rule 1. Generally, hyphenate two or more words when they come before a noun they modify and act as a single idea. This is called a compound adjective

.

Examples:
an off-campus apartment
state-of-the-art design

When a compound adjective follows a noun, a hyphen is usually not necessary.

Example: The apartment is off campus.

However, some established compound adjectives are always hyphenated. Double-check with a dictionary or online.

Example: The design is state-of-the-art.

16

Rule 3.

An often overlooked rule for hyphens: The adverb very and adverbs ending in ly are not hyphenated

.

Incorrect: the very-elegant watch
Incorrect: the finely-tuned watch

This rule applies only to adverbs. The following two examples are correct because the ly words are not adverbs:

Correct: the friendly-looking dog

17

Rule 4. Hyphens are often used to tell the ages of people and things

. A handy rule, whether writing about years, months, or any other period of time, is to use hyphens unless the period of time (years, months, weeks, days) is written in plural form:

With hyphens:
We have a two-year-old child.
We have a two-year-old.

No hyphens: The child is two years old. (Because years is plural.)

Exception: The child is one year old. (Or day, week, month, etc.)

Note that when hyphens are involved in expressing ages, two hyphens are required. Many writers forget the second hyphen:

Incorrect: We have a two-year old child.

Without the second hyphen, the sentence is about an "old child."

18

Rule 8b. When writing out numbers with fractions, hyphenate only the fractions unless the construction is a compound adjective.


Correct: The sign is five and one-half feet long.
Correct: A five-and-one-half-foot-long sign.
Incorrect: The sign is five-and-one-half feet long.

19

Rule 9a. Do not hyphenate proper nouns of more than one word when they are used as compound adjectives

.

Incorrect: She is an Academy-Award nominee.
Correct: She is an Academy Award nominee.

20

Preposition of position

At means next to.used for events such as party.also for public building such as at railway station ,hospital

On means directly in physical contact and also got transport where on can stand such as on bus,train,aeroplane ,motorbike but In the car

21

https://youtu.be/1Dax90QyXgI

Use the present simple tense to talk about permanent situations:
Ex: shobha lives in New Delhi.

Wrong: I am working as a teacher.
Correct: work as a teacher.

Wrong: I am having a large family.
Correct: I have a large family.

Wrong: I don't think she is recognizing me.
Correct: I don't think she recognizes me.

22

Use the present perlect CONTINUOUS tense to talk about actions or
situations that started in the PAST and are still CONTINUING:
sub + have/has been + verb-ing

Wrong: Lucas is working here for three years.
Correct: Lucas has been working here for three years.

Use the present perlect continuous tense to talk about actions or
situations that started in the past and are still continuing: (
/Zp\
sub + have/has been + verb-ing h

Use since to mention the STARTING POINT and for to mention the duration.

Wrong: We've been waiting for you since two hours.

Correct: We've been waiting for you since 5 o'clock/for two hour

23

less with un countable nouns
less ◆ uncountable noun
less milk
less sugar
less money
less information

fewer chairs
fewer students
fewer buildings
fewer jobs

Wrong: There are less libraries today compared to ten years ago.
Correct: There are fewer libraries today compared to ten years ago

we use at to talk about a place or live at an address
Studay at a university
work at /for company
for city or country use IN

Wrong: The concert had already started when we arrived in the venue.
Correct: The concert had already started when we arrived at the venue.

team arrived in England

Wrong: Mr. And Mrs. Sullivan live ot New York.
Correct: Mr. ond Mrs. Sullivan live in New York.

use

24

in ◆ month/year
Ex:"It rains a lot here in August.
on ◆ specific date
Ex:"I was born on october 8,1985.

Wrong: was born on 1985.

Correct: was born in 1985.

say in with month and year
for specific date on

00
Prepositions

in the afternoon in the morning BUT at night

Wrong: Don't go out in the night. Ws not very safe.
Correct: Don't go out ot night. It's not very safe.

25

article
==Articles
1. Always put a or an before a singular, common noun.
2. Use a before consonant sounds, an before vowel sounds b $ p
3. Always put THE before superlative forms L
the best, the worst, the hottest, the coldest, fhe most expensive, the least important

. 4.Don't put a or an before uncountable nouns.
Wrong: Frank Sinatra is best singer I have ever heard.
Correct: Front Sinatra is the best singer I hove ever heard.

1. Always put a or an before a singular, common noun.
2. Use 0 before consonant sounds, an before vowel sounds.
3. Always put the before superlative forms.
4. Don't put a or an before uncountable nouns.

Wrong: I need on advice from you about buying a guitar.
Correct: need some advice from you about buying a guitar.

Idea is countable but advice is un countable

26

L"Articles
1. Always put 0 or on before a singular, common noun.
2. Use 0 before consonant sounds, an before vowel sounds G L
3. Always put the before superlative forms.
4. Don't put 0 or on before uncountable nouns.
5. Use no article when generalizing with plurals.

Wrong: The teachers should be Friendly to their students.

Correct: Teachers should be friendly to their students.

.To talk GENERALLY, say most people/students/homeowners etc.

To talk about a SPECIFIC group, use most of the
Ex:"Most of the students in my class passed the exam. 1
a8';
Wrong: Most of people have a computer at home these day

Correct: Most people hove a computer at home these days.