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Flashcards in Grazing Deck (46):
1

The 2 principal contrls that can be prescribed to achieve the grazing intensity desired

1. Stocking Rate
2. Length of Grazing period

2

 grazing capacity quantifies....

the amount of available forage for grazing animals on a given site

3

Impacts of grazers

#NAME?

4

What is stocking rate

the # of animals grazing that forage for a given period of time

5

annual fluctuations in forage production mean that .....

setting and adjusting stocking rates should be viewed as a process rather than an exercise in determining a precise number of animals that a site can carry.

6

Stocking rates and grazing agreements

Grazing agreements should include a process for adjusting stocking rates

7

Methods to estimate grazing capacity:

- Forage production estimates for range sites i.d.'d in USDA soil surveys (rough guidelines)- Direct measurement of veg- Knowledge of present or historical stocking rates on the site, or similar site- Scorecard method based on climate zone, topography, an

8

grazing capacity, or stocking rate, is commonly expressed in:

lbs or tons of forage produced, often described in Animal Unit Months (AUMs)

9

How grazing capacity is expressed in intensively managed rotational grazing systems

Animal Unit Days(AUDs)

10

Stocking rate is expressed as ____

Animal Units per time period(AU)

11

When does the grazing season begin in California

in the fall

12

What is residual dry matter?

mulch, or the dead plant materials above the soil surface. Remaining in the Fall at the end of the grazing season.

13

RDM is measured in...

lb/acre

14

Relation between RDM amounts and herbage productin the following spring

increasing amounts of mulch on the soil immediately before the fall rains led to an increase in herbage production the following spring

15

Relation between RDM/mulch and plant composition

Some species favored when all mulch removed, others when none, and a third in between

16

Plant species needing RDM >1500 lbs/acre

Semaphore Grass

17

Plants that produced strongly in the spring following intermediate RDM/mulch levels

legumes

18

Plant species needing RDM <1500 lbs/acre

Baker's Meadowfoam

19

Methods to reduce RDM to below 1500 lb/acre

Confine livestock using electric fence or use molasses tablet, protein supplements, or salt blocks to attractORMow and remove veg

20

Plants that produced strongly in the spring following no RDM/mulch levels

California goldfields

21

What is available forage?""

the forage produced minus the amount of residual dry matter or RDM desired

22

Plants that produced strongly in the spring following high RDM/mulch levels

only soft chess

23

Something to consider when directly measuring grazing capacity

many samples may need to be taken for accuracy, especially on sites where forage production is highly variable.

24

Land types where scorecard estimates of grazing capacity works well

large tracts of land dominated by annual grasses and forbs

25

Grazing season in coastal california

year round

26

A type of livestock operation that requires pasture all year

cow-calf beefto support mother cows

27

Simplest and most common grazing system type in low-elevation California

continuous grazing

28

Rotational grazing offers potential advantages (5):

- More stable plant productivity- Potentially greater plant productivity- Decreased weed and erosion problems- More uniform distribution of grazing use, manure, and urine- Uniform distribution reduces shading of semaphore grass by competing vegetation&nbs

29

Grazing season relation to a particular plant species you are trying to encourage

defer grazing until after seed sets

30

Grazing season if trying to reduce undesirable species competition with native grasses

late winter and early spring grazing

31

How to determine whether or not grazing might benefit individual species

- describe the various habitat elements required- analyze how and when livestock could impact them, + or -

32

What is residual dry matter?

mulch, or the dead plant materials above the soil surface

33

Relation between RDM amounts and herbage productin the following spring

increasing amounts of mulch on the soil immediately before the fall rains led to an increase in herbage production the following spring

34

Relation between RDM/mulch and plant composition

Some species favored when all mulch removed, others when none, and a third in between

35

Plants that produced strongly in the spring following intermediate RDM/mulch levels

legumes

36

Plants that produced strongly in the spring following no RDM/mulch levels

California goldfields

37

What is available forage?""

the forage produced minus the amount of residual dry matter or RDM desired

38

Plants that produced strongly in the spring following high RDM/mulch levels

only soft chess

39

Something to consider when directly measuring grazing capacity

many samples may need to be taken for accuracy, especially on sites where forage production is highly variable.

40

Land types where scorecard estimates of grazing capacity works well

large tracts of land dominated by annual grasses and forbs

41

Grazing season in coastal california

year round

42

A type of livestock operation that requires pasture all year

cow-calf beefto support mother cows

43

Simplest and most common grazing system type in low-elevation California

continuous grazing

44

Grazing season relation to a particular plant species you are trying to encourage

defer grazing until after seed sets

45

Why “fire fuel management” and “preserving soil and water resources” may have inherent conflicts

soil and water resources would be best protected by lighter grazing for a shorter time period,fire fuel reduction would require a more aggressive grazing program with less biomass retained at the end of the season

46

Plant species more prevalent in areas that are heavily grazed or trampled

#NAME?