relatively permanent change in behavior as a result of experience
What are the three theories for learning?
learning that takes place when two stimuli, one conditioned and one unconditioned, are presented together to induce the same response
For example, Pavlov rang a bell when he was going to feed his dogs. The dogs would naturally salivate when food was presented to them, but over time when Pavlov rang his bell his dogs would salivate even without the presence of food.
Define acquisition as it relates to classical conditioning.
passively learning to give a known response to a new stimulus
What are the three stages of memory?
What is the function of sensory memory?
Sensory memory is a buffer between what is in the world and what we actually take into our minds. This information is held for less than a second before it is lost or transferred to short-term memory.
What are common properties of sensory memory?
very short duration
connects memory to perception
includes echoic and iconic memory
What kind of memory is used when you say a number over and over (rehearsal) before you dial it into your phone?
Short-term memory is used, and lasts in your brain for roughly 10-30 seconds. Information in short-term memory is lost due to interference.
What are the types of rehearsal that allow short-term memories to transfer to long-term memory?
primary, or "maintenance" rehearsal
secondary, or "elaborative" rehearsal
What is the difference between maintenance rehearsal and elaborative rehearsal?
Maintenance rehearsal is simply repeating the stimulus again and again in order to remember it. While maintenance rehearsal is good for rote memorization, elaborative rehearsal organizes the stimulus into something meaningful so that it is processed deeply and remembered better.
What kind of memory is used when remembering your own phone number?
Long-term memory, which can last for days, weeks, years, or life. Very little gets transferred from your short-term to your long-term memory.
What are the three measures of memory retention?
savings (or relearning)
What is recognition?
Recognition is the easiest form of memory retention measurement, since all it requires is someone remembering that they have been exposed to the stimulus before.
What is recall and what are its two types?
In memory tasks, recall is when a participant must restate something learned previously.
- Free recall is when the subject is not cued with anything like a word stem or a subject grouping.
- Cued recall is when a specific stimulus must be restated, like a fill-in-the-blank question on an exam.
basic speech sounds with no meaning
the smallest carrier of meaning, phonemes combined to create meaning
words grouped together to create a single unit of syntax in a sentence
an element of grammar that dictates the rules for phrase/sentence construction
rules for using a given language, interrelating morphemes and syntax
grammar rules, the understanding of how to group morphemes
the perception of tone inflections, accents, and emotional aspects of language that carry meaning