Greece Flashcards Preview

Greece > Greece > Flashcards

Flashcards in Greece Deck (50):

What are the PDO regions of Macedonia?  (4)

Naoussa PDO-

Amynteo "ah-MEN-dio"PDO

-both produce red wines solely from firmly tannic Xinomavro

Goumenissa "goo-MEN-knee-SA"PDO produces lighter Xinomavro with the addition of at least 20% Negoska

Slopes of Meliton (Plagies Melitona)- single appellation/monopole for Domaine Carras producing wine based on Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet Franc, and the native Limnio.


What region was the first appellation of Greece? When? Style found in the appellation? What large winery is based in this region?

Naoussa in 1971

Dry Red(> 4.5 g/l), Semi-Dry Red (4.5 - 17.5 g/l), Semi-Sweet Red (17.5 < g/l) based on 100% Xinomavro



What is the climate in Naoussa?  What mountain range is found in Naoussa?

Though located on the southeastern slopes of Mount Vermio where there is snow in winter, summers are so dry that irrigation is essential. The land is sufficiently varied and extensie for individual crus to deserve identification.


What are the two categories of Naoussa wine?

Young wine from the lighter, sandy soil and more age-worthy wine from clay and limestone soils.


What does Xinomavro "ksee-NOH-mah-vroh" mean?



What is Greece's coolest region? What style is found in this region?

Amynteo (Amindeo) on the northwest-facing side of Mount Vermio opposite Naoussa, but at a higher elevation.

100% Xinomavro  

Sparkling Rosé (Dry and Semi-Sweet)


Dry Red based

-one of the few PDOs allowed to make rose in Greece (only could find Rhodes PDO) in the Aegean Islands


What producer owns the monopole of the PDO Slopes of Meliton? What style is found? Who was the winemaker? Who was the consultant?

Slopes of Meliton (Plagies Melitona) is a single appellation for Domaine Carras.

Red wines based on blends of Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet Franc, and the native Limnio;

White wines based on the Greek varietals Assyrtiko, Athiri, and Rhoditis.

Evangelos Gerovassiliou "jero-VAH-ZA-lou", the winemaker who launched Domaine Carras to international acclaim ('76-'99) under the guidance of Émile Peynaud, nurtured the native white Malagousia grape from the brink of extinction and now produces varietal wines of high aromatic intensity from the grape at his own domaine in the PGI district of Thessaloniki in northern Macedonia.


What are the three PDO's of Thessalia and their styles?

Rapsani PDO- Red wine only appellation located on the lower slopes of Mount Olympus; the southernmost outpost of the Xinomavro grape. Tannins and acid are softened by warmer climate and mandatory blending with lighter Krakatoa and Stavroto grapes.

Messenikola PDO-70% Mavro Mesenikola "ma-SEN-knee-co-la"maximum 30% combined Syrah and Carignan

Anchialos "AN-key-AL-los" PDO- only white wines blended from Roditis (75%) and Savvatiano (25%) grapes from high-altitude vineyards


What is the PDO of Epirus? What style?

Zitsa-produces dry, semisweet, and sparkling wines from the Debina grape.


-Sparkling wine may be produced in the Traditional Method or in tank.


What is the center of production for Central Greece and what is the style of wine?

Attiki PGI; it is a bastion of Retsina using the low-acid Savvatiano grape. Roditis is the second most planted variety and the common name for a closely linked family of pink-skinned grapes.


-No PDO zones in Central Greece (Sterea Ellada)


Why is Savvatiano preferred for Retsina? What other grapes are added?

Known as Greece's most common white grape, it retains some varietal character even when resinated.


-it is the most common ingredient in Retsina, although Roditis and Assyrtiko are often added to compensate for Savatiano’s naturally low acidity. 


Which Greek region is a peninsula (a piece of land extending out into a body of water)?

What creates the peninsula?

Peloponnesus due to the narrow Isthmus of Corinth

The Corinth Canal separates the Peloponnese from mainland Greece


What are the three PDO's that have the most vine cultivation concentrated in northern part of Peloponnese?





What style is found in Nemea PDO?


What nicknames are sometime attached to Nemea?

Dry Red Wines

Semisweet Red Wines (produced by stoping fermentation or by adding must concentrate to dry wines)


All from 100% Agiorgitiko "ah-yor-YEE-tee-koh" (St. George)

The nickname “blood of Hercules” (or “blood of the lion”) is sometimes attached to the wines of Nemea, commemorating the first of Hercules’ twelve legendary labors. 


What are the PDO's of the Pelopenese? (6)

Nemea PDO- 

Dry Red/Semisweet Red Wines (produced by stoping fermentation or by adding must concentrate to dry wines)100% Agiorgitiko "ah-yor-YEE-tee-koh" (St. George)

Mantinia PDO

Patras PDO

Monemvassia-Malvasia PDO- Naturally Sweet White (Vin Liastos/Sun Dried)/Fortified Sweet White (VDN), Min. 51% Monemvassia, plus Assyrtiko, Asproudes, Kydonitsa;  aged in an oxidative environment for at least two years

Muscat of Patras PDO "PA-tra"-VDN or naturally sweet produced Moschato Aspro (Muscat Blanc à Petits Grains) (sun dried)

Muscat of Rio Patras PDO "PA-tra"- same as above

Mavrodaphne of Patras PDO-sweet, fortified red produced from Mavrodaphne and Maori Korinthiaki. "COR-rinth-e-ah-KEY"

Korinthiaki-a currant grape useful for enriching the sugar content of the wine. Greece is where most of the world’s currants are produced.


-Pratas- no "s" sound


What is Agiorgitiko and what is a synonym for the grape?

A softly tannic, intensely fruity black grape and one of Greece's most noble native varietals. Also know as St. George.


What is the most famous subzone of Nemea?



What are the soils of Nemea?

Describe the three different zones.



The Agiorgitiko grape is grown on marl and deep red soil.

If yields are not too high, it can produce intense, fruity red wine from three different zones whose elevation varies between 250 and 900 m (800–3,000 ft). Grapes from the lowest vineyards frequently lack acidity and can be used to make a sweet wine. The finest, dry wine is said to come from vineyards between 450 and 700 m (1,500–2,350 ft) above sea level, but the potential of the highest, coolest parts of the appellation is now being explored. 


What is the style found in Mantinia PDO?

Dry white (Vin Gris style, accomplished through skin contact) and sparkling wines (must be made in either traditional or cuve close) made from minimum 85% Moschofilero, plus Asporoudes. This is one of Greece's most exciting white wines.


What is Moschofilero?

A red-skinned grape with an aromatic resemblance to Muscat used as the principal component of Mantinia PDO There are strong flavour similarities with fine muscat but the origins of this distinct vine variety are as yet obscure. Small quantities of fruity light pink wine are also made from this spicy variety, which is also increasingly used for sparkling wines.


What is the style of wine in Patras PDO?

Dry, Semi-Dry, and Semi-Sweet White Wine produced from 100% Roditis.


What are the four dessert only wines connected to the Peloponnese?

Monemvassia-Malvasia- Naturally Sweet White (Vin Liastos/Sun Dried)/Fortified Sweet White (VDN), Min. 51% Monemvassia, plus Assyrtiko, Asproudes, Kydonitsa,  aged in an oxidative environment for at least two years

Muscat of Patras "PA-tra"-VDN or naturally sweet produced Moschato Aspro (Muscat Blanc à Petits Grains) (sun dried)

Muscat of Rio Patras "PA-tra"- same as above

Mavrodaphne of Patras-sweet, fortified red produced from Mavrodaphne and Maori Korinthiaki. "COR-rinth-e-ah-KEY"

Korinthiaki-a currant grape useful for enriching the sugar content of the wine. Greece is where most of the world’s currants are produced.


-Pratas- no "s" sound


What is Mavrodaphne and what PDO is it connected to?




When drank?

Mavrodaphne (“black laurel”) of Patras is a sweet, fortified red produced from Mavrodaphne and Mavri Korinthiaki.

-Korinthiaki-a currant grape useful for enriching the sugar content of the wine. Greece is where most of the world’s currants are produced.

-Aged for at least one year in wood prior to release, but may sometimes be in cask for a decade or more prior to bottling.

-Both vintage and non-vintage versions may be found.

-The estate of Achaia-Clauss, progenitor of the style, has a Mavrodaphne solera dating to 1882.

-Often drank as an aperitif to temper the briny, salty character of Greek first courses—and the wine is used for the communion sacrament in Greek Orthodox services.


What is Monemvassia-Malvasia PDO?




A small zone (est 2010) on the southeastern coast of the Peloponnese for naturally and fortified sweet wine made from nin. 51% Monemvassia, plus Assyrtiko, Asproudes, Kydonitsa

-the wines must be aged in an oxidative environment for at least two years, the first releases are due in the market in 2012.

- "Monemvassia" is the name of the grape; also the name of an old port town governed variously by the Greeks, Byzantines, Venetians and Turks. Trade of Monemvassia's sweet wines dates back to the 13th century. 



What are the four wine-producing Ionian islands off the west coast of Greece?




Kerkyra (Corfu)




Which of the Ionian islands has a PDO?

What are the three PDOs styles?


Robola of Cephalonia PDO dry white wines produced from 100% Robola. (unrelated to the Ribolla/Rebula of Friuli/Slovenia.)

Mavrodaphne of Cephalonia PDO-Min. 50% Mavrodaphne, plus Mavri Korinthiaki (The latter must be co-fermented.)

Muscat of Cephalonia PDO producing VDN/VDL/Sun driedsweet wines-100% Moschato Aspro (Muscat Blanc à Petits Grains)


What is Verdea and where is it found in Greece?

What grapes?

On the island of Zakynthos (off the west coast of Peloponnese). A traditional appellation for oxidative wines (similar to Jura's vin jaune and Sherry)

Made from Min. 50% Skiadopoulo, plus Robola, Goustolidi, Avgoustiatis (up to 34 varieties are planted on the island of Zakynthos)


What are the PDO's of the Aegean Islands? (8)

Lemnos PDO

Malvasia Paros PDO

Muscat of Lemnos PDO

Muscat of Rhodes PDO

Paros PDO

Rhodes PDO

Samos PDO

Santorini PDO


How much of Greek's wine is produced in Crete?

20% (yet the island struggles with quality)

-largest and most southern Greek isle


What are the two red wine only PDO's of Crete?

Archanes "AR-ha-nays" PDO- dry red only made from Kotsifali and Madilaria

Dafnes "DAF-nays" PDO- dry, sweet, fortified red only made from 100% Liatiko


What two PDO's of Crete produce both red and white wine?

Sitia "SIT-tee-ah"PDO- red made from Liatiko, white made from Vilana


Peza "pay-ZA"PDO- red made from Kotsifali and Mandilaria, white made from 100% Vilana


What are the three new PDO zones of Crete?

Candia PDO

Malvasia Candia PDO

Malvasia Sitia PDO- White Min. 70%-Vilana, Red-Min. 80% Liatiko, Sweet-100% Liatiko


How much of Greece's wine is produced in Crete?



What is the most cultivated white grape of Crete?

Vilana, comprises the majority of Sitia whites and all of Peza whites.


What white grape is preferred in Crete by more talented winemakers?

Vidiano, a white grape that retains more acidity.


What is the dominant red grape of Sitia and Dafnes?

Liatiko, found only on Crete and a handful of neighboring islands. It is one of the most ancient varieties under cultivation and delivers a distinctively "orange" wine.


What two islands make up the Cyclades islands 

Santorini and Paros


What is the main grape and the blending grapes of Santorini PDO

Assyrtiko, sometimes blended with Athiri and Aidani.


What is special about the vine training for Santorini vines?

Stefani baskets. The vines must be trained close to the ground, in the stefani shape of baskets or wreaths, in order to protect them from the fierce Aegean winds and to collect the little moisture that becomes available as morning dew.


Name a producer of Assyrtiko in Santorini.

Paris Sigalas, a master of Assyrtiko in both barrel-aged and fresher versions.


What is the sweet dried grape wine of Santorini called?

Vinsanto-a name likely appropriated by the Italians when Venetian ruled the island in the Middle Ages.


What is the only PDO appellation that mandates use of a white grape in red blends? What styles are allowed?

Paros PDO

Dry white and red

White: 100% Monemvasia

Red: co-fermentation of min. 35% Mandelaria grape, and Monemvassia must. 


What does the isle of Samos produce?

One of the nations most famous wines: Muscat of Samos. The island rises sharply from the sea, and the vineyards are planted on high altitude, terraced slopes. -Muscat Blanc à Petits Grains is known as Moscato Aspro, and is produced in vin de liqueur, vin doux naturel and naturally sweet versions.


What is Samos Nectar?

The naturally sweet version of Moscato Aspro on Samos. It is similar to vin de paille—the wine is produced from dried grapes and aged for a minimum of three years prior to release.


What are the PDO's and styles of Lemnos?

Dominated by white wine from Moschato Alexandrias (Muscat) and may be dry or sweet. PDO does produce red wine with the Limnio grape, but it is quickly diminishing.


What are the PDO's and styles of Rhodes

Produces PDO red, white and rose varietal wines from Mandilaria and Athiri.

Muscat of Rhodes PDO wines are rarely encountered.


What is Assyrtico?

-Top-quality white grape variety grown increasingly widely in greece.

Originates from the island of Santorini; ability to retain acidity in a hot climate has encouraged successful experimentation with it elsewhere, notably on the north-eastern mainland around Halkidiki.

-Severe mineral profile has made it a successful blending partner for malagousia, Sauvignon Blanc, and Sémillon. Its wines can age relatively well.

-By 2008 it was Greece’s third most-planted white wine vine with 1,704 ha/4,211 acres, and it has even been imported into Australia.


What is Savatiano?

Greece’s most common wine grape, widely planted on 11,306 ha/27,926 acres in 2012 throughout Attica and central greece. This light-berried vine, with its exceptionally good drought resistance, is the most common ingredient in retsina, although roditis and assyrtiko are often added to compensate for Savatiano’s naturally low acidity. On particularly suitable sites, Savatiano can produce well-balanced dry white wines.


What is Robola?

wine and grape variety for which the Ionian island of Cephalonia in greece is most famous. The distinctively powerful, lemony dry white is made entirely from Robola grapes, which are cultivated almost exclusively on the island. The wine made from these early-ripening grapes is high in both acidity and extract and is much prized within Greece. The few hundred hectares are mainly limited to the Ionian islands of greece.


Three major red varietals from Crete?

Liatiko, Kotsifali, Mandilaria