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Flashcards in Greek Part 1 Deck (12)
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What are some hallmarks of the Geometric period in ancient Greece?

-900-700 BC
-construction of large temples and sanctuaries dedicated to gods→ state religion
-Olympic gods
-epic poetry→ Homer→ the Iliad (Greek vs Troy); the Odyssey (adventures of Odysseus)
-bronze/terracotta/painted scenes on vessels= interest in figural imagery that focuses on funerary rituals and the heroic world of aristocratic warriors and their equipment
-turning, decorating, and firing terracotta vases; casting and coldworking bronze, engraving gems, working gold
-no stone sculptures yet (maybe wood or bronze or clay)


What was the purpose of the Geometric Krater?
Describe the type of decoration that borders the narrative scenes. What do the scenes depict?

-grave markers= large vases
-main scene shown= prosthesis→ ritual in ancient Greek funerary practice in which the deceased is laid out out on a high bed
-relatives/family come to mourn and pay respects
-deceased on his side with a checkered shroud
-triangular chest ppl shown frontally and breasts in profile
-circular heads→ profile
-geometric shapes; hence geometric period
-chariots/horses/warriors carry spears and shields→ may refer to the military accomplishments of the dead
-glorious ancestry?


What are some hallmarks of the Archaic period?

-eastern pictorial motifs (sirens, sphinxes, made up animals)
-Corinthians→ invented style of silhouetted forms (small animals and plants)
-Athens→ vase painters illustrate mythological scenes
-6th century BC→ 2 types of freestanding large scale sculptures (male kouros (standing nude youth) or female kore (standing draped maiden))
-Egyptian influence in pose and proportions
-dedications to gods or grave markers


Describe the general changes in art from the Geometric to the Archaic period.

-more naturalistic
-eastern pictorial motifs (sirens, sphinxes, made up animals)
-assimilate foreign styles into new portrayals of their own myths and customs→ classical greek art


With respect to Greek culture, identify some of the innovations that took place during the Archaic period.

-Thales of Miletos demonstrated cycles of nature, predicted solar eclipse and solstices
-Pythagoras→ mathematician
-Solon= made a written code of laws
-Athenian vases dominated export; show aspects of Greek culture (daily life, athletics, warfare, religion, mythology
-experiment with different painting techniques


What kinds of scenes appear on pottery during the Archaic period?

-mythological scences
-trophy amphorai (vases) for victorious athletes in Panathenaic games


What was the original function of the Panathenaic amphora?
Is this a more or less realistic depiction of human figures than on the Geometric krater?

-it was usually given as a prize to the winning athlete in one of the Panathenaic games every 4 year (in each event)
-filled with olive oil from sacred place
-much more realistic


What is a kouros?
What was its original function?
In what ways is it similar to Egyptian figural sculptures?

-male youth
-original function= grave markers or dedications in the sanctuary of a god
-posture like egyptian statues (clenched fists, left leg forward, stiff)
-no like egyptian art= nude, not skirted, no rectangular piece of stone on the back
-lifelike vitality; concern with design


Explain the importance of Athens during the Classical period (c. 479 BCE).

-dominated Grece politically, economically, and culturally
-organized confederacy of allies to ensure freedom of Greek cities
-wealthy imperial power
-developed into the first democracy
Parthenon on Acropolis


In general, how did art change from the Archaic to the Classical period?

-representation conveys vitality of life, sense of permanence, clarity, and harmony,
-red figure technique (no more black figure)
-HUMAN BODY clothed, nude, or in motion
-Praxiteles Aphrodite of Knidos
-nude (females usually shown draped)
-slender proportions, distinctive contrapposto stance= hallmarks


Who was Polykleitos and for what achievement was he known?

-of Argos
made a system of proportions that achieved the artistic effect (vitality of life, sense of permanence, clarity, and harmony, ) and allowed others to reproduce it
-inspired by Pythgoras


How does this sculpture ( Doryphoros (Spear Bearer)) exemplify Polykleitos’ Canon?

-it shows asymmetrical balance
-motion while at rest (looks like he’s moving but he’s not)
-harmony of opposites (head turns right, hips turn left; right arm and left leg are relaxed; right leg supports relaxed leg and opposes flexed arm with spear)
-tensed relaxed limbs support each other diagonally
-ideal beauty
-harmonious numerical ratios (Pythagoras)