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Flashcards in Greek Part 1 Deck (12)
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1

What are some hallmarks of the Geometric period in ancient Greece?

-900-700 BC
-construction of large temples and sanctuaries dedicated to gods→ state religion
-Olympic gods
-epic poetry→ Homer→ the Iliad (Greek vs Troy); the Odyssey (adventures of Odysseus)
-bronze/terracotta/painted scenes on vessels= interest in figural imagery that focuses on funerary rituals and the heroic world of aristocratic warriors and their equipment
-turning, decorating, and firing terracotta vases; casting and coldworking bronze, engraving gems, working gold
-no stone sculptures yet (maybe wood or bronze or clay)

2

What was the purpose of the Geometric Krater?
Describe the type of decoration that borders the narrative scenes. What do the scenes depict?

-grave markers= large vases
-main scene shown= prosthesis→ ritual in ancient Greek funerary practice in which the deceased is laid out out on a high bed
-relatives/family come to mourn and pay respects
-deceased on his side with a checkered shroud
-triangular chest ppl shown frontally and breasts in profile
-circular heads→ profile
-geometric shapes; hence geometric period
-chariots/horses/warriors carry spears and shields→ may refer to the military accomplishments of the dead
-glorious ancestry?

3

What are some hallmarks of the Archaic period?

-naturalistic
-eastern pictorial motifs (sirens, sphinxes, made up animals)
-Corinthians→ invented style of silhouetted forms (small animals and plants)
-Athens→ vase painters illustrate mythological scenes
-6th century BC→ 2 types of freestanding large scale sculptures (male kouros (standing nude youth) or female kore (standing draped maiden))
-Egyptian influence in pose and proportions
-dedications to gods or grave markers

4

Describe the general changes in art from the Geometric to the Archaic period.

-more naturalistic
-eastern pictorial motifs (sirens, sphinxes, made up animals)
-assimilate foreign styles into new portrayals of their own myths and customs→ classical greek art
?????

5

With respect to Greek culture, identify some of the innovations that took place during the Archaic period.

-Thales of Miletos demonstrated cycles of nature, predicted solar eclipse and solstices
-Pythagoras→ mathematician
-Solon= made a written code of laws
-Athenian vases dominated export; show aspects of Greek culture (daily life, athletics, warfare, religion, mythology
-experiment with different painting techniques

6

What kinds of scenes appear on pottery during the Archaic period?

-mythological scences
-trophy amphorai (vases) for victorious athletes in Panathenaic games

7

What was the original function of the Panathenaic amphora?
Is this a more or less realistic depiction of human figures than on the Geometric krater?

-it was usually given as a prize to the winning athlete in one of the Panathenaic games every 4 year (in each event)
-filled with olive oil from sacred place
-much more realistic

8

What is a kouros?
What was its original function?
In what ways is it similar to Egyptian figural sculptures?

-male youth
-nude
-original function= grave markers or dedications in the sanctuary of a god
-posture like egyptian statues (clenched fists, left leg forward, stiff)
-no like egyptian art= nude, not skirted, no rectangular piece of stone on the back
-lifelike vitality; concern with design

9

Explain the importance of Athens during the Classical period (c. 479 BCE).

-dominated Grece politically, economically, and culturally
-organized confederacy of allies to ensure freedom of Greek cities
-wealthy imperial power
-developed into the first democracy
???
Parthenon on Acropolis

10

In general, how did art change from the Archaic to the Classical period?

-representation conveys vitality of life, sense of permanence, clarity, and harmony,
-ideal
-red figure technique (no more black figure)
-HUMAN BODY clothed, nude, or in motion
-Praxiteles Aphrodite of Knidos
-nude (females usually shown draped)
-slender proportions, distinctive contrapposto stance= hallmarks

11

Who was Polykleitos and for what achievement was he known?

-of Argos
made a system of proportions that achieved the artistic effect (vitality of life, sense of permanence, clarity, and harmony, ) and allowed others to reproduce it
-inspired by Pythgoras

12

How does this sculpture ( Doryphoros (Spear Bearer)) exemplify Polykleitos’ Canon?

-it shows asymmetrical balance
-motion while at rest (looks like he’s moving but he’s not)
-harmony of opposites (head turns right, hips turn left; right arm and left leg are relaxed; right leg supports relaxed leg and opposes flexed arm with spear)
-tensed relaxed limbs support each other diagonally
-ideal beauty
-harmonious numerical ratios (Pythagoras)