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Flashcards in Gross Anatomy Deck (65):
1

The medial geniculate body gets input from the ___ and is involved with ___

inferior colliculus
hearing

2

What does the epithalamus include?

pineal body
habenular nuclei

3

What are habenular nuclei?

collection of nuclei at the base of pineal body

4

What is the role of the pineal body?

gonadal maturation
melatonin production

5

Cortex is smooth at __ months and has infoldings at __ months

6, 9

6

What is the function of the insula?

pain pathways
visceral activity

7

Are fibres in the internal capsule crossed or uncrossed?

uncrossed

8

What is another name for the interventricular foramen?

foramen of Munro

9

What is non-communicating hydrocephalus?

channels that would normally communicate with each other cannot because they are occluded

10

What cavity is associated with: spinal cord, medulla&pons, mesencephalon, diencephalon, telencephalon (hemispheres)?

spinal cord - central canal
medulla & pons - IVth ventricle
mesencephlon - cerebral aqueduct
diencephalon - IIIrd ventricle
telecephalon - lateral ventricles

11

The subarachnoid space exists between which meninges?

pia mater and arachnoid

12

How do vertebral arteries and internal carotid arteries enter the skull?

vertebral - foramen magnum
internal carotids - carotid canal

13

Which arteries are part of the carotid system?

anterior cerebral arteries
anterior communicating arteries
middle cerebral arteries
small anterior choroidal arteries
posterior communicating arterise

14

Which arteries connect the carotid system to the vertebral-basilar system?

posterior communciating arteries

15

Which arteries are part of the vertebral-basilar system?

posterior cerebral artery
superior cerebellar artery
pontine branches
anterior inferior cerebellar artery
posterior inferior cerebellar artery
anterior and posterior spinal

16

What are the branches of the basilar artery?

posterior cerebral and posterior choroidal arteries
superior cerebellar arteries
pontine and labyrinthe arteries
anterior inferior cerebellar arteries

17

What are the branches of the vertebral arteries?

posterior inferior cerebellar arteries
anterior and posterior spinal arteries

18

What area is supplied by the superior cerebellar artery?

upper surface cerebellum
midbrain
rostral pons

19

What area is supplied by pontine branches?

inferior surface of pons

20

What area is supplied by anterior inferior cerebellar artery?

anterior inferior cerebellum
posterior pons

21

What area is supplied by the posterior inferior cerebellar arteries?

posterior margins of cerebellum
lateral surface of medulla
choroid plexus of fourth ventricle

22

What are the groups of central/penetrating/ganglionic arteries that arise from the circle of Willis?

anteromedial group
anterolateral group (leticulostriate)
posteromedial group
posterolateral group

23

Draw where the different groups of central arteries come off the Circle of Willis

see notes

24

What does the anteromedial group supply

hypothalamus

25

What does the anterolateral (leticulostriate) group supply? What would a lesion here imply?

basal ganglia
internal capsule
capsullary stroke

26

What does the posteriormedial group suply

thalamus
subthalamus
hypothalamus
parts of medial midbrain

27

What does the posterolateral group supply

posterior thalamus, tectum and some lateral portions of the midbain

28

Where does the posterior choroidal artery branch from? What does it supply?

posterior cerebral artery
provides oxygen to the body of the lateral ventricles and with choroid plexus of the third ventricle

29

Where does the labyrinthe artery go?

inner ear

30

What structures are included in the diencephalon?

thalamus, epithalamus, hypothalamus, subthalamus

31

What are the two regions of grey matter in the cerebral hemispheres?

cerebral cortex
basal ganglia

32

What does the anterior choroidal artery supply?

choroid plexus, inferior horn of lateral ventricle, also has thalamus & midbrain branches

33

What does the middle cerebral artery supply? Stroke here produces what effect?

supplies primary motor and primary sensory cortex of both hemispheres; lateral surfaces of frontal, parietal, anterior occipital and upper two gyri of temporal lobes
stroke = contralateral UMN paralysis

34

What does the anterior cerebral artery supply?

Supply medial surface of the frontal and parietal lobes

35

What does the posterior cerebral artery supply?

Medial surface of occipital lobe

36

What artery supplies visual cortex directly? What would an infarct in this area cause?

calcarine artery
blindness in contralateral visual field

37

What arteries are included in the circle of willis?

anterior cerebral arteries
anterior communicating artery
internal carotid arteries
posterior communicating arteries
posterior cerebral arteries

38

What is the commonest artery that may be missing in the Circle of Willis?

posterior communicating artery

39

Draw the branches of the aorta and include: left subclavian artery, left common carotid artery, brachiocephalic trunk, right common carotid artery, right subclavian artery, vertebral artery, right internal and external carotid artery

See notes

40

What type of fibres are in the corpus callosum?

commissural fibres

41

What structures are known collectively as the "limbic lobe"?

cingulate gyrus
parahippocampal gyrus
uncus

42

What structure separates the anterior horns of the two lateral ventricles from one another?

septum pellucidum

43

What divides hypothalamus from thalamus?

hypothalamic sulcus

44

Mammillary bodies receive input from the ___ via the ___

limbic lobe via fornix

45

What is the function of CN IX ?

general and taste sens from posterior 1/3rd of tongue
motor innervation of stylopharyngeus
parotid gland

46

The vagal trigone overlies what

DMN vagus

47

The hypoglossal trigone overlies what

hypoglossal nucleus

48

What is underneath the facial colliculus?

genu of the facial nerve

49

What nerves arise from the ponto-medullary junction?

VI, VII, VIII

50

Where is the vestibular area?

floor of the fourth ventricle lateral to facial colliculus

51

The vestibular area overlies what

location of vestibular nuclei

52

What is the major function of the frontal lobe?

motor control

53

what is the major function of the pre-frontal area?

judgement
formulate plan of action
memory

54

what is the primary motor cortex?

precentral gyrus

55

what is the primary sensory cortex?

postcentral gyrus

56

What is the function of occipital lobe

procession visual information

57

What is the function of the temporal lobe

auditory information
limbic system
olfaction
speech

58

What is the function of the insular cortex

visceral function
nociception

59

Primary visual cortex is located on either side of what sulcus?

calcarine sulcus

60

Where does the uncus receive input

olfactory input & input from lateral olfactory stria

61

Axons of the anterior commissure connect

temporal lobes

62

Axons of the posterior commissure mediate

reflexes associated with pupillary constriction

63

What are three functions of the hypothalamus

visceral activity
homeostasis
limbic system

64

What is the function of the superior colliculi

mediates visual reflexes
visual function

65

What is the function of the inferior colliculi

auditory function