Growth, Development and Behavior Flashcards Preview

Nelson's Pediatrics > Growth, Development and Behavior > Flashcards

Flashcards in Growth, Development and Behavior Deck (296):
1

The neonatal period begins at birth and include the _____.

1st mo. of life

2

Mothers whose early childhood wee marked by _____ may find it especially difficult to provide consistent, responsive care

traumatic separations
abuse
neglect

3

Prenatal Risk Factors for Attachment

recent death of a loved one
previous loss of or serious illness of another child
prior removal of a child
depression or serious mental illness
infertility or pregnancy loss
troubled relationship with parents
financial stress or job loss
marital discord or poor relationship with other parent
recent move or no community ties
no friends or social network
unwanted pregnancy
no good parenting model
experience of poor parenting
drug and/or alcohol abuse
extreme immaturity

4

Returning to work should be delayed for at least _____ by which time feeding and basic behavioral adjustments have been established.

6 weeks

5

A _____ is a woman trained to offer friendly support and encouragement during labor whose presence results in shorter labor, fewer obstetric complications and reduced postpartum hospital days

doula

6

Postpartum depression may occur in the first _____ after delivery.

1 week - 6 mos.

7

Early skin-to-skin contact immediately after birth may correlate with an increased rate and longer duration of _____.

breastfeeding

8

Anthropometrics:
weight at birth

3.4 kg
7.5 lbs

9

Anthropometrics:
length at birth

50 cm
20 in

10

Anthropometrics:
head circumference at birth

35 cm
14 in

11

Neonates are near-sighted with a focal length of _____, approximately the distance between the breast and the mother's face.

8-12 in

12

A newborn's hearing is well developed and there is preference for a _____.

female voice

13

Newborns have a visual preference for _____.

faces

14

Overaroused infants show signs of _____.

autonomic instability

15

6 Behavioral States of an Infant

quiet sleep
active sleep
drowsy
alert
fussy
crying

16

The newborn's first office visit should occur during the first _____.

2 weeks after discharge

17

For newborns who were discharged early, are breastfeeding and are at risk for jaundice, follow-up should be done _____.

1-3 days after discharge

18

Developmental Milestones of Newborns:
Gross Motor

prone: arms and legs flexed, pelvis high
ventral suspension: head held below body
supine: arms/legs semi-flexed
pull to sit: complete head lag
held upright: legs extended

19

Developmental Milestones of Newborns:
Fine Motor

grasp reflex
drop object immediately
hands remain fisted
sweeping movements towards object

20

Developmental Milestones of Newborns:
Language

Expressive: crying, whimpering
Receptive: startledby loud sound

21

Developmental Milestones of Newborns:
Personal-Social

gazes at faces, colored objects and bright lights

22

Physiologic Weight Loss

↓10% BW in the 1st week


*excretion of excess extravascular fluid, limited nutritional intake

23

Infants regain or exceed their birth weight by _____.

2 weeks

24

Infants grow ______ during the 1st mo.

30 g/day

*fastest postnatal growth

25

Infants from 0-2 mos. can already differentiate among _____.

patterns
colors
consonants

26

Infants who are consistently picked up and held in response to distress_____ and show _____.

cry less at 1 y.o.
less aggressive behavior at 2 y.o.

27

Crying peaks at _____ then decreases to _____.

6 weeks (3h/day)
≤ 1h at 3 mos.

28

The cerebellar white matter acquires myelin by 1 mo. and is completely myelinated by _____.

3 mos.

29

Myelination progresses from _____.

posterior to anterior

30

Physiologic changes in the first 2 mos. allow the establishment of _____.

feeding routines
predictable sleep-wake cycle

31

Neurologic maturation allows consolidation of sleep into _____ during the first 2 mos. of life.

5-6 hours/night

32

Infants at 2 mos. can discriminate rhythmic patterns in _____.

native vs. non-native language

33

_____ is present in 20% of infants < 2 mos. and although inmost it is a transient and normal behavioral activity, it is often associated with parental concern and distress.

Crying/Fussiness

34

At 2-6 mos. emergence of _____ and _____ mark the change in the parent-child relationship.

voluntary (social) smiles
increasing eye contact

35

Between 3-4 mos., rate of growth is _____.

20 g/day

36

By 4 mos. birthweight is _____.

doubled

37

Total sleep requirements at 2-6 mos. are approximately_____.

14-16 hours/day

38

By _____, the sleep EEG shows a mature pattern.

4-6 mos.

39

At 4 mos., infants are described as _____ socially, becoming interested in a wider world.

hatching

40

The first stage of personality development occurs during _____.

2-6 mos.

41

Motor maturation makes infants at _____ exciting and interactive.

3-6 mos.

42

At _____, infants develop will and intentions.

6-12 mos.

43

By the 1st birthday, birth weight has _____, length has increased by _____, and HC has increased by _____.

3x BW
↑50% length
+10 cm HC

44

Thumb-finger grasp develops at _____.

8-9 mos.

45

Pincer grasp develops at _____.

12 mos.

46

Tooth eruption occurs at _____ starting with the _____.

6-12 mos.
mandibular central incisors

47

Object permanence is achieved at _____.

9 mos.

48

Stranger anxiety usually develops with _____.

object permanence

49

The first true word appears in concert with an infant's discovery of _____.

object permanence

50

Gross Motor Milestones:
holds head steady while sitting

2 mos.

51

Gross Motor Milestones:
pulls to sit with no head lag

3 mos.

52

Gross Motor Milestones:
brings hands together in midline

3 mos.

53

Gross Motor Milestones:
asymmetric tonic neck reflex gone

4 mos.

54

Gross Motor Milestones:
sits without support

6 mos.

55

Gross Motor Milestones:
rolls back to stomach

6.5 mos.

56

Gross Motor Milestones:
walks alone

12 mos.

57

Gross Motor Milestones:
runs

16 mos.

58

Developmental Implications:
holds head steady while sitting

allows more visual interaction

59

Developmental Implications:
pulls to sit with no head lag

muscle tone

60

Developmental Implications:
brings hands together in midline

self-discovery of hands

61

Developmental Implications:
asymmetric tonic neck reflex gone

can inspect hands in midline

62

Developmental Implications:
sits without support

increasing exploration

63

Developmental Implications:
rolls back to stomach

truncal flexion, risk of falls

64

Developmental Implications:
walks alone

exploration, control of proximity to parents

65

Developmental Implications:
runs

supervision more difficult

66

Fine Motor Milestones:
grasps rattle

3.5 mos.

67

Fine Motor Milestones:
reaches for objects

4 mos.

68

Fine Motor Milestones:
palmar grasp gone

4 mos.

69

Fine Motor Milestones:
transfers object hand to hand

5.5 mos.

70

Fine Motor Milestones:
thumb-finger grasp

8 mos.

71

Fine Motor Milestones:
turns pages of book

12 mos.

72

Fine Motor Milestones:
scribbles

13 mos.

73

Fine Motor Milestones:
builds tower of 2 cubes

15 mos.

74

Fine Motor Milestones:
builds tower of 6 cubes

22 mos.

75

Developmental Implications:
grasps rattle

object use

76

Developmental Implications:
reaches for objects

visuomotor coordination

77

Developmental Implications:
palmar grasp gone

voluntary release

78

Developmental Implications:
transfers object hand to hand

comparison ofobjects

79

Developmental Implications:
thumb-finger grasp

able to explore small objects

80

Developmental Implications:
turns pages of book

increasing autonomy during book time

81

Developmental Implications:
scribbles

visual-motor coordination

82

Developmental Implications:
builds tower of 2 cubes

uses objects in combination

83

Developmental Implications:
builds tower of 6 cubes

requires visual, gross, and fine motor coordination

84

Communication and Language Milestones:
smiles in response to face, voice

1.5 mos.

85

Communication and Language Milestones:
monosyllabic babble

6 mos.

86

Communication and Language Milestones:
inhibits to "no"

7 mos.

87

Communication and Language Milestones:
follows one-step command with gesture

7 mos.

88

Communication and Language Milestones:
follows one-step command without gesture

10 mos.

89

Communication and Language Milestones:
says "mama" or "dada"

10 mos.

90

Communication and Language Milestones:
points to objects

10 mos.

91

Communication and Language Milestones:
speaks first real word

12 mos.

92

Communication and Language Milestones:
speaks 4-6 words

15 mos.

93

Communication and Language Milestones:
speaks 10-15 words

18 mos.

94

Communication and Language Milestones:
speaks 2-word sentences

19 mos.

95

Developmental Implications:
smiles in response to face, voice

more acgive social participant

96

Developmental Implications:
monosyllabic babble

experimentation with sound, tactile sense

97

Developmental Implications:
inhibits to "no"

response to tone (non-verbal)

98

Developmental Implications:
follows one-step command with gesture

non-verbal communication

99

Developmental Implications:
follows one-step command without gesture

verbal receptive language

100

Developmental Implications:
says "mama" or "dada"

expressive language

101

Developmental Implications:
points to objects

interactive communication

102

Developmental Implications:
speaks first real word

beginning of labeling

103

Developmental Implications:
speaks 4-6 words

acquisition of object and personal names

104

Developmental Implications:
speaks 10-15 words

acquisition of object and personal names

105

Developmental Implications:
speaks 2-word sentences

beginning grammatization, corresponds with 50-word vocabulary

106

Cognitive Milestones:
stares momentarily at spot where object disappeared

2 mos.

107

Cognitive Milestones:
stares at own hand

4 mos.

108

Cognitive Milestones:
bangs 2 cubes

8 mos.

109

Cognitive Milestones:
uncovers toy after seeing it hidden

8 mos.

110

Cognitive Milestones:
egocentric symbolic play

12 mos.

111

Cognitive Milestones:
uses stick to reach toy

17 mos.

112

Cognitive Milestones:
pretend play with doll

17 mos.

113

Developmental Implications:
stares momentarily at spot where object disappeared

lack of object permanence

114

Developmental Implications:
stares at own hand

self-discovery, cause and effect

115

Developmental Implications:
bangs 2 cubes

active comparison of objects

116

Developmental Implications:
uncovers toy after seeing it hidden

object permanence

117

Developmental Implications:
egocentric symbolic play

beginning symbolic thought

118

Developmental Implications:
uses stuck to reach toy

able to link actions to solve problems

119

Developmental Implications:
pretend play with doll

symbolic thought

120

Most children begin to walk independently near their _____.

1st birthday

121

Language develops in a sequence where _____.

receptive language precedes expressive language

122

By ____, the average child points to major body parts and uses 4-6 words spontaneously and correctly.

15 mos.

123

By 24 mos., children are about _____ of their ultimate adult height.

1/2

124

90% of adult HC is achieved by _____.

2 y.o.

125

Increased clinginess develops at _____ and a _____ may be used as a symbol of the absent parent.

18 mos.
transitional object

126

Self-conscious awareness and internalized standards of behavior first appear at _____.

18-24 mos.

127

The most dramatic development during 18-24 mos. is _____.

linguistic

128

A child's vocabulary balloons from _____ at 18 mos. to _____ at 2 y.o.

10-15 words - 18 mos.
50-100 - 2 y.o.

129

Children start to understand 2-step commands at _____.

18-24 mos.

130

Gross Motor Milestones:
run, pivots, walk backwards

15 mos.

131

Gross Motor Milestones:
walk upstairs with rails

18 mos.

132

Gross Motor Milestones:
jump with both feet

24 mos.

133

Gross Motor Milestones:
jump forward, pedal tricycle

30 mos.

134

Fine Motor Milestones:
spontaneous scribbling

15 mos.

135

Fine Motor Milestones:
imitate stroke on paper

18 mos.

136

Fine Motor Milestones:
imitate vertical lines

24 mos.

137

Fine Motor Milestones:
draw circle with series of perseverating lines

30 mos.

138

Languange Milestones:
two-word phrases, able to follow 2-step commands

24 mos.

139

Emerging Patterns of Behavior:
Prone - lies in flexed attitude, turns head from side to side, head sags on ventral suspension

neonate

140

Emerging Patterns of Behavior:
Supine - generally flexed and a little stiff

neonate

141

Emerging Patterns of Behavior:
Visual - may fixate face on light in line of vision, "doll's eye", movement of eyes on turning of the body

neonate

142

Emerging Patterns of Behavior:
Reflex - Moro response active, stepping and placing reflexes, grasp reflex active

neonate

143

Emerging Patterns of Behavior:
Social - visual preference for human face

neonate

144

Emerging Patterns of Behavior:
Prone - legs more extended, holds chin up, turns head, head lifted momentarily to plane of body on ventral suspension

1 mo.

145

Emerging Patterns of Behavior:
Supine - tonic neck posture predominates, supple and relaxed, head lags when pulled to sit

1 mo.

146

Emerging Patterns of Behavior:
Visual- watches person, follows moving object

1 mo.

147

Emerging Patterns of Behavior:
Social - body movements in cadence with voice of other in social contact, beginning to smile

1 mo.

148

Emerging Patterns of Behavior:
Prone - raises head slightly farther, head sustained in plae of body on ventral suspension

2 mos.

149

Emerging Patterns of Behavior:
Supine - tonic neck posture predominated, head lags when pulled to sit

2 mos.

150

Emerging Patterns of Behavior:
Visual - follows moving object 180 degrees

2 mos.

151

Emerging Patterns of Behavior:
Social - smiles on social contact, listens to voice and coos

2 mos.

152

Emerging Patterns of Behavior:
Prone - lifts head and chest with arms extended, head above plane of body on ventral suspension

3 mos.

153

Emerging Patterns of Behavior:
Supine -tonic neck posture predominated, reaches toward and missed objects, waves at tooy

3 mos.

154

Emerging Patterns of Behavior:
Sitting- head lag partially compensated when pulled to sit, early head control with bobbing motion, back rounded

3 mos.

155

Emerging Patterns of Behavior:
Reflex - typical Moro response has not persisted, makes defensive movements or selective withdrawal reactions

3 mos.

156

Emerging Patterns of Behavior:
Social - sustained social contact, listens to music, says "aah, ngah"

3 mos.

157

Emerging Patterns of Behavior:
Prone - lifts head and chest, with head in approximately vertical axis, legs extended

4 mos.

158

Emerging Patterns of Behavior:
Supine - symmetric posture predominated, hands midline, reaches and grasps objects and brings them to mouth

4 mos.

159

Emerging Patterns of Behavior:
Sitting - no head lag when pulled to sit, head steady, tipped forward, enjoys sitting with full truncal support

4 mos.

160

Emerging Patterns of Behavior:
Standing - when held erect, pushes with feet

4 mos.

161

Emerging Patterns of Behavior:
Adaptive - sees raisin, but makes no move to reach for it

4 mos.

162

Emerging Patterns of Behavior:
Social - laughs out loud, may show displeasure is social contact is broken, excited at sight of food

4 mos.

163

Emerging Patterns of Behavior:
Prone - rolls over, pivots, crawls, creep-crawls

7 mos.

164

Emerging Patterns of Behavior:
Supine - lifts head, rolls over, squirms

7 mos.

165

Emerging Patterns of Behavior:
Sitting - sits briefly, with support of pelvis, leans forward on hands, back rounded

7 mos.

166

Emerging Patterns of Behavior:
Standing - may support most of weight, bounces actuvely

7 mos.

167

Emerging Patterns of Behavior:
Adaptive - reaches out for and grasps largeobjects, transfers objects hand to hand, grasp uses radial palm, rakesat raisin

7 mos.

168

Emerging Patterns of Behavior:
Language - forms polysyllabic vowel sounds

7 mos.

169

Emerging Patterns of Behavior:
Social - prefers mother, babbles, enjoys mirror, responds to changes in emotional content of social contact

7 mos.

170

Emerging Patterns of Behavior:
Sitting - siits up alone and indefinitely without supportm back straight

10 mos.

171

Emerging Patterns of Behavior:
Standing - pulls to stand, cruises or walks holding on to furniture

10 mos.

172

Emerging Patterns of Behavior:
Motor - creeps or crawls

10 mos.

173

Emerging Patterns of Behavior:
Adaptive - grasps objects with thumb and forefinger, pokes at things with forefinger, picks up pellet with assisted pincer movement, uncovers hidden toy, attempts to retrieve dropped object, releases object grasped by other person

10 mos.

174

Emerging Patterns of Behavior:
Language - repetitive consonant sounds

10 mos.

175

Emerging Patterns of Behavior:
Social - responds to sound of name, plays peek-a-boo or pat-a-cake, waves bye-bye

10 mos.

176

Emerging Patterns of Behavior:
Motor - walks with one hand held, rises independently, takes several steps

1 y.o.

177

Emerging Patterns of Behavior:
Adaptive -picks up raisin with unassisted pincer movement of forefinger and thimbe, releases object to other person on request or gesture

1 y.o.

178

Emerging Patterns of Behavior:
Language - says a few words besides "mama" or "dada"

1 y.o.

179

Emerging Patterns of Behavior:
Social - plays simple ball game, makes postural adjustment to dressing

1 y.o.

180

Emerging Patterns of Behavior:
Motor - walks alone, crawls up stairs

15 mos.

181

Emerging Patterns of Behavior:
Adaptive - makes tower of 3 cubes, makes line with crayon, inserts raisin in bottle

15 mos.

182

Emerging Patterns of Behavior:
Language - jargon, follows simple commands, may name a familiar object, responds to his-her name

1 mos.

183

Emerging Patterns of Behavior:
Social - indicates some desires or needs by pointing, hugs parents

15 mos.

184

Emerging Patterns of Behavior:
Motor - runs stiffly, sits on small chair, walks up stairs with hand heldm explores drawers and wastebaskets

18 mos.

185

Emerging Patterns of Behavior:
Adaptive - makes tower of 4 cubes, imitates scribbling, imitates vertical stroke, dumps raisin from bottle

18 mos.

186

Emerging Patterns of Behavior:
Language - 10 words, names pictures, identifies 1 or more parts of body

18 mos.

187

Emerging Patterns of Behavior:
Social- feeds self, seeks help when in trouble, may complain when wt or soiled, kisses parent with pucker

18 mos.

188

Emerging Patterns of Behavior:
Motor - runs well, walks up and down stairs, 1 step at a time, opens doors, climbs furniture, jumps

24 mos.

189

Emerging Patterns of Behavior:
Adaptive - makes tower of 7 cubes, scribbles in circular pattern, imitates horizontal stroke, folds paper once imitatively

24 mos.

190

Emerging Patterns of Behavior:
Language - puts 3 words together (subject, verb, object)

24 mos.

191

Emerging Patterns of Behavior:
Social - handles spoon well, often tells about immediate experiences, helps undress, listens to stories when shown pictures

24 mos.

192

Emerging Patterns of Behavior:
Motor - goes up stairs alternating feet

30 mos.

193

Emerging Patterns of Behavior:
Adaptive - makes tower of 9 cubes, makes vertical and horizontal strokes, but generally will not join them to make cross, imitates circular stroke, forming closed figure

30 mos.

194

Emerging Patterns of Behavior:
Language - refers to self by pronoun "I", knows full name

30 mos.

195

Emerging Patterns of Behavior:
Social - helps put things away, pretends in play

30 mos.

196

Emerging Patterns of Behavior:
Motor - rides tricycle, stands momentarily on 1 foot

36 mos.

197

Emerging Patterns of Behavior:
Adaptive - makes tower of 10 cubes, imitates construction of bridge of 3 cubes, copies circle, imitates cross

36 mos.

198

Emerging Patterns of Behavior:
Language - knows age and sex, counts 3 objects correctly, repeats 3 numbers or a sentence of 6 syllables, most of speech intelligible to strangers

36 mos.

199

Emerging Patterns of Behavior:
Social - plays simple games (parallel play), helps in dressing (unbuttons clothing, puts on shoes), washes hands

36 mos.

200

Emerging Patterns of Behavior:
Motor - hops on 1 foot, throws ball overhand, uses scissors to cut out pictures, clims well

48 mos.

201

Emerging Patterns of Behavior:
Adaptive - copies bridge from model, imitates construction of gate of 5 cubes, copies cross and square, draws man with 204 parts beside head, identifies longer of 2 lines

48 mos.

202

Emerging Patterns of Behavior:
Language - counts 4 pennies accurately, tells story

48 mos.

203

Emerging Patterns of Behavior:
Social - plays with several children, with beginning of social interaction and role-playing, goes to toilet alone

48 mos.

204

Emerging Patterns of Behavior:
Motor - skips

60 mos.

205

Emerging Patterns of Behavior:
Adaptive - draws triangle from copy, names heavier of 2 weights

60 mos.

206

Emerging Patterns of Behavior:
Language - names 4 colors, repeats sentence of 10 syllables, counts 10 pennies correctly

60 mos.

207

Emerging Patterns of Behavior:
Social - dresses and undresses, asks questions about meaning of words, engages in domestic role-playing

60 mos.

208

The critical milestones for 2-5 y.o. are _____.

emergence of language
expanding social sphere

209

Birthweight quadruples by _____.

2 1/2 y.o.

210

An average 4 y.o. weighs _____ and is _____ tall.

40 lbs.
40 in.

211

Head circumference will grow an additional _____ between 3-18 years.

5 cm

212

Handedness is established at _____.

3 years

213

Bowel and bladder control emerges during _____.

preschool years (2-5 y.o.)

214

Bedwetting is normal up to _____.

4 y.o. - girls
5 y.o. - boys

215

At _____, the number of words in a typical sentence equals the child's age

2-5 y.o.

216

_____ with a child improves vocabulary and receptive language.

Reading aloud

217

_____ of children will stutter but resolve in _____.

5%
80% by 8 y.o.

218

Magical thinking, egocentrism and thinking that is dominated by perception are present during the

preschool years (2-5 y.o.)

219

After _____, the child develops a concept of self as an individual (needs to feel whole).

2 y.o.

220

TV and similar media should be limited to _____.

2 hrs/day

221

At 2 y.o., behavioral limits are _____ and by 5 y.o., these controls need to be _____.

external - 2 y.o.
internal - 5 y.o.

222

Tantrums lasting _____ or regularly occurring _____ may reflect underlying medical, emotional and social problem.

> 15 min.
> 3x/day

223

During _____, curiosity about genitals and adult sexual organs is normal, as is masturbation.

preschool years (2-5 y.o.)

224

Before the 2nd birthday, the child's sense of right and wrong stems from _____.

the desire to earn approval from the parents
avoid negative consequences

225

Discipline during the preschool years should be _____.

immediate
specific to the behavior
time-limited

226

Time-out for approximately _____ of age is very effecive.

1 min./yr.

227

Gross Motor Milestones:
ride a tricycle

3 y.o.

228

Gross Motor Milestones:
hop

4 y.o.

229

Gross Motor Milestones:
skip

5 y.o.

230

Fine Motor Milestones:
draw a circle or a person with 2 body parts

3 y.o.

231

Fine Motor Milestones:
draw a cross

3.5-4 y.o.

232

Fine Motor Milestones:
draw a square

4-4.5 y.o.

233

Fine Motor Milestones:
draw a triangle

5 y.o.

234

Language Milestones:
3-4 worded sentences, understands prepositions

3 y.o.

235

Language Milestones:
complete sentences, understands concept of size

4 y.o.

236

Language Milestones:
understands concept of time, follows 3-step commands

5 y.o.

237

Personal-Social Milestones:
dress under supervision

3 y.o.

238

Personal-Social Milestones:
dress independently/correctly

4 y.o.

239

Personal-Social Milestones:
do simple errands, help in household chores

5 y.o.

240

Self-esteem is a central issue during _____.

middle childhood (6-11 y.o.)

241

Loss of deciduous (baby) teeth starts at _____.

6 y.o.

242

Replacement with adult teeth occurs at a rate of _____

4 teeth/yr.

243

Increasing independence is marked by the first _____.

sleepover
overnight camp

244

By 5-6 y.o., children have developed a _____.

conscience

245

Gross Motor Milestones:
climb, run

7 y.o.

246

Fine Motor Milestones:
copy letters, reverse some letters, draw a person with 12 parts

6 y.o.

247

Fine Motor Milestones:
know right and left sides

7 y.o.

248

Language Milestones:
verbalize emotions, follow 3-step command

6 y.o.

249

Personal-Social Milestones:
dress up completely, tie shoe laces

6 y.o.

250

Head circumference is determined by _____.

running a flexible tape measure from the supraorbital ridge to the occiput

251

BMI Formula

weight in kg/(height in m)^2

252

Mid-Parental Height Formula: Boys

[(maternal ht. + 13) + paternal ht.]/2

253

Mid-Parental Height Formula: Girls

[maternal ht. + (paternal ht. - 13)]/2

254

The diagnosis of failure to thrive is considered if a child's weight is _____.

< 5th percentile
drops more than 2 percentile lines
weight for height is < 5th percentile

255

_____ remains to be the single best growth chart indicator of acute undernutrition.

weight for height < 5th percentile

256

Linear growth deficiency (stunting) is more likely to be due to _____ rather than nutritional deficiency.

congenital
constitutional
familial

257

The ratio of the upper body segment divided by the lower body segment is _____.

1.7 - birth
1.3 - 3 y.o.
1 - 7 y.o.

258

Skeletal maturation is linked more closely to _____ than to chronological age.

sexual maturity rating

259

Puberty:
Timing of Growth Spurt - Males

mid-puberty (SMR 3-4)
11.5 y.o.

260

Puberty:
Timing of Growth Spurt - Females

early puberty (SMR 2-3)
10 y.o.

261

Puberty:
Peak Height Velocity - Males

13.5 y.o.

262

Puberty:
Peak Height Velocity - Females

11.5 y.o.

263

Puberty:
Rate of Linear Growth - Males

9-10 cm/yr

264

Puberty:
Rate of Linear Growth - Females

8-9 cm/yr

265

Puberty:
Average Gain in Height - Males

28 cm

266

Puberty:
Average Gain in Height - Females

25 cm

267

Puberty:
Peak Weight Velocity - Males

occurs with peak height velocity

268

Puberty:
Peak Weight Velocity - Females

6 mos. after peak height velocity

269

Puberty:
Muscle Mass - Males

increases from 80 to 90% of body weight

270

Puberty:
Muscle Mass - Females

decreases from 80 to 70% of body weight

271

Rules of Thumb for Growth:
Weight

5-10% weight loss at 1st week
retrun or exceed BW at 7-10 days
double BW at 405 mos.
triple BW at 1 y.o.

272

Rules of Thumb for Growth:
Daily Weight Gain

20-30 g/day - 3-4 mos.
15-20 g/day - 5-12 mos.

273

Rules of Thumb for Growth:
Length/Height

20 in. - birth
30 in. - 1 y.o.
40 in. - 4 y.o.

274

Rules of Thumb for Growth:
Head Circumference

35 cm - birth
2 cm/mo. x 3 mos.
1 cm/mo 4-12 mos.

275

Estimated Weight - 0-6 mos.

mos. x 600 + BW g

276

Estimated Weight - 6-12 mos.

300 + (mos.after 6 mos. x 500) + BW g

277

Estimated Weight - 1-6 y.o.

years x 2 + 8 kg

278

Estimated Weight - 7-12 y.o.

[(years x 7) - 5]/2

279

Estimated Length - 0-3 mos.

birth length + 9 cm

280

Estimated Length - 4-6 mos.

birth length + 9 cm + 8 cm

281

Estimated Length - 7-9 mos.

birth length + 9 cm + 8 cm + 5 cm

282

Estimated Length - 10-12 mos.

birth length + 9 cm + 8 cm + 5 cm + 3 cm

283

Estimated Height - 2-12 y.o.

(years x 6) + 77 cm

284

Developmental Milestones:
moves head side to side, regards face, alerts to bell

2 weeks

285

Developmental Milestones:
lifts shoulder while prone, tracks past midline, smiles responsively, cooing,searches for sound with eyes

2 mos.

286

Developmental Milestones:
lifts up on hands, rolls front to back, no head lag if pulled to sit, reaches for object, raking grasp, looks at hand, begins to work toward toy, laughs, squeals

4 mos.

287

Developmental Milestones:
sits alone, transfers object hand to hand, feeds self, holds bottle, babbles

6 mos.

288

Developmental Milestones:
pulls to stand, gets into sitting position, pincer grip, bangs 2 blocks, waves bye-bye, plays pat-a-cake, says "mama"/"dada" as non-specific 2-syllable sounds

9 mos.

289

Developmental Milestones:
walks, stoops and stands, puts block in cup, drinks from cup, imitates others, says "mama"/"dada" as specific words, says 1-2 words

12 mos.

290

Developmental Milestones:
walks backward, scribbles, stacks 2 blocks, uses spoon and fork,helps in housework, says 3-6 words, follows commands

15 mos.

291

Developmental Milestones:
runs, stacks 4 blocks, kicks a ball, removes clothes, feeds doll, says 6 words

18 mos.

292

Developmental Milestones:
walks up and down the stairs, throws overhand, stacks 6 blocks, copies line, washes and dries hands, brushes teeth, puts on clothes, puts 2 words together, points to pictures, knows body parts, understands concept of today

2 y.o.

293

Developmental Milestones:
walks with alternating steps, broad jump, stacks 8 blocks, wiggles thumb, ues spoon well, pits on t-shirt, names pictures, speech understandable to stranger (75%), 3-word sentences, understands concept of tomorrow and yesterday

3 y.o.

294

Developmental Milestones:
balances well, on each foot,hops o one foot, copies circle, draws person with 3 parts, brushes teeth without help, dresses without help, names colors, understands adjectives

4 y.o.

295

Developmental Milestones:
skips, heel-to-toe walks, copies square, counts, understands opposites

5 y.o.

296

Developmental Milestones:
balances on each foot for 6 sec., copies triangle, draws person with 6 parts, defines words, begins to understand right and left

6 y.o.