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Flashcards in Growth Disorders 3 Deck (9):
1

What are some of the macroscopic morphological features of malignant neoplasms

Invasive
Sometimes circumscribed
Sometimes capsule
Necrosis
Haemorrhagic
Variegated

2

What are some microscopic morphological features of benign neoplasms

Usually not pleomorphic
No abnormal mitoses
Low mitotic rate
No invasion/necrosis
No desmoplasia
Low nuclear: cytoplasmic ratio
Well differentiated

3

What are some microscopic morphological features of malignant neoplasms

Pleomorphism
Dark nuclei (hyperchromic)
High mitotic activity
Necrosis
Microscopic invasion
Vascular invasion
Reaction to invasion (desmoplasia)
High nuclear to cytoplasmic ratio
Well, moderate, poor or undifferentiated

4

What type of biological behavior do malignant neoplasms have

Proliferation of transformed cells, invasion, distant spread (metastasis)

5

What are some features of precancerous lesions

- Disordered growth, differentiation and maturation of cellular components of tissue.
- Confined to the epithelium (no invasion)
-Morphological expression of disturbance of growth regulation.
- individual dysplastic cells show features similar to malignant cells

6

Discuss the progression of pre cancerous lesions to malignancy

Pre cancerous lesions first localized, often asymptomatic
- penetrate basement membranes
- movement through extra cellular matrix
- penetrate vascular channels (most cells don't survive journey)
- exit to new tissue sites
- survival, growth as metastasis, evoking angiogenesis, growth factors secreted

7

What type of cancer is lymphatic dissemination most common in

Carcinomas

8

What type of cancers is haematogenous dissemination most common in and are veins or arteries more easily penetrated and why

Sarcomas

Veins more commonly penetrated as thinner walls than arteries

9

What are some of the macroscopic morphological features of benign neoplasms

Capsule
Circumscribed
No invasion
Uniform, not usually haemorrhagic
Rarely necrotic

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