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Flashcards in GU system Deck (24):
1

Anatomy of penis

2 corpora cavernosa covered by tunica albigunea. 1 corpus spongiosum, surrounding the urethra.

2

Blood supply to penis

Internal pudendal artery

3

Lymphatic drainage of penis

Deep and superficial inguinal nodes

4

What is the scrotum made up of?

Smooth muscle, elastic layer of Darto's fascia, combined layers of Camper and Scarpa fascia

5

Camper's fascia

Fatty layer, more superficial

6

Scarpa's fascia

Membranous layer, deeper

7

Causes of hematuria

Common: UTI, GN, bladder cancer, renal stone, BPH. Other: coagulopathy, sickle cell, anticoagulation, CT disease, renal disease, cystitis, prostatitis, epididymitis

8

Testicular tumor types

95% are germ cell tumors: seminomas, nonseminomas, and mixed. 1-2% are stromal cell tumors: Leydig cell, Sertolid cell.

9

Treatment for early pure seminoma?

Inguinal orchiectomy + radiation therapy

10

Treatment for nonseminomas?

Inguinal orchiectomy + retroperitoneal lymph node dissection +/- chemo

11

What is a normal urinary pH?

5.85

12

If pH > 6, what type of stone should you suspect?

Presence of urease-producing organisms such as Proteus -> struvite stone

13

Urine is acidic or basic with uric acid stones?

Acidic (pH

14

What imaging for nephrolithiasis?

Non-contrast CT. Also: plain films (won't see all types of stones), US for hydonephrosis, IVP.

15

Histology of prostatic carcinoma

Adenocarcinoma. Starts at periphery (in contrast to BPH, which starts periurethral area).

16

What are possible complications of XRT for prostate cancer?

Proctitis, urethritis, rectal strictures and fistulae, impotence (up to 50%)

17

Renal cell carcinoma epi

Men > women. Age 55-60 most common. Increased risk with smoking.

18

Paraneoplastic syndromes assoc with RCC?

Hypercalcemia (PTH), galactorrhea (prolactin), Cushing syndrome

19

Diagnosis of RCC

ultrasound is key for differentiating cyst from solid tumor. CT is method of choice for dx and staging

20

Bladder cancer epi

Men > women. Peak age 60-70. TCC has better prognosis than adenocarcinoma and SCC

21

Risk factors for bladder cancer

Smoking. Exposure to dye. Chronic UTI. Recurrent nephrolithiasis.

22

Treatment of superficial carcinoma of bladder

Endoscopic resection with repeat cystoscopy q3-6 months. Majority will have recurrence though. Then you can do intravesicular chemo

23

Treatment of invasive bladder cancer

Simple or radical cystectomy

24

Treatment of metastatic bladder cancer

Chemo: cisplatin, MTX, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, vinblastine. Prognosis is generally