Flashcards in GU system Deck (24)
Anatomy of penis
2 corpora cavernosa covered by tunica albigunea. 1 corpus spongiosum, surrounding the urethra.
Blood supply to penis
Internal pudendal artery
Lymphatic drainage of penis
Deep and superficial inguinal nodes
What is the scrotum made up of?
Smooth muscle, elastic layer of Darto's fascia, combined layers of Camper and Scarpa fascia
Fatty layer, more superficial
Membranous layer, deeper
Causes of hematuria
Common: UTI, GN, bladder cancer, renal stone, BPH. Other: coagulopathy, sickle cell, anticoagulation, CT disease, renal disease, cystitis, prostatitis, epididymitis
Testicular tumor types
95% are germ cell tumors: seminomas, nonseminomas, and mixed. 1-2% are stromal cell tumors: Leydig cell, Sertolid cell.
Treatment for early pure seminoma?
Inguinal orchiectomy + radiation therapy
Treatment for nonseminomas?
Inguinal orchiectomy + retroperitoneal lymph node dissection +/- chemo
What is a normal urinary pH?
If pH > 6, what type of stone should you suspect?
Presence of urease-producing organisms such as Proteus -> struvite stone
Urine is acidic or basic with uric acid stones?
What imaging for nephrolithiasis?
Non-contrast CT. Also: plain films (won't see all types of stones), US for hydonephrosis, IVP.
Histology of prostatic carcinoma
Adenocarcinoma. Starts at periphery (in contrast to BPH, which starts periurethral area).
What are possible complications of XRT for prostate cancer?
Proctitis, urethritis, rectal strictures and fistulae, impotence (up to 50%)
Renal cell carcinoma epi
Men > women. Age 55-60 most common. Increased risk with smoking.
Paraneoplastic syndromes assoc with RCC?
Hypercalcemia (PTH), galactorrhea (prolactin), Cushing syndrome
Diagnosis of RCC
ultrasound is key for differentiating cyst from solid tumor. CT is method of choice for dx and staging
Bladder cancer epi
Men > women. Peak age 60-70. TCC has better prognosis than adenocarcinoma and SCC
Risk factors for bladder cancer
Smoking. Exposure to dye. Chronic UTI. Recurrent nephrolithiasis.
Treatment of superficial carcinoma of bladder
Endoscopic resection with repeat cystoscopy q3-6 months. Majority will have recurrence though. Then you can do intravesicular chemo
Treatment of invasive bladder cancer
Simple or radical cystectomy