HA&T Chapter 15 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in HA&T Chapter 15 Deck (114):
0

Osteoblasts

Immature bone cells

1

Osteoclasts

Bone phagocytes. Large cells that digest bony tissue

2

Sesamoid bones

Small rounded bones, resembling sesame seeds in shape. They are found near joints and increase the efficiency of muscles near a particular joint. Kneecap is the largest example.

3

Flat bones

Are found covering soft body parts. I.e. skull, shoulder blades, ribs, and pelvic bones

4

Short bones

Are found in the wrist and ankle. Are small and irregularly shaped.

5

Long bones

Found in the thigh, lower leg, upper and lower arm. These bones are very strong, and are broad at the ends where they join up with other bones. They have large areas for muscle attachment.

6

Diaphysis

Shaft, or middle region of a long bone.

7

Epiphysis

Each end of a long bone.

8

Epiphyseal line or plate

Represents an area of cartilage tissue the is constantly being replaced by new bone tissue as the bone grows. AKA growth plate

9

Metaphysis

Is the flared portion of the bone. It lies between the epiphysis and the diaphysis, adjacent to epiphyseal plate.

10

Periosteum

Is a strong fibrous vascular membrane that covers the surface of long bones, except at the epiphyses. Has nerve supply. Other types of bones also covered with periosteum.

11

Articular cartilage

The ends of long bones and the surface of any bone that meets another bone to form a joint are covered with articulate cartilage. Cartilage is a strong, thick, slick tissue. It cushions joint and allows it to moves smoothly

12

Compact (cortical) bone

Is a layer of hard dense bone that lies under the periosteum in all bones and is located chiefly around diaphysis of long bones.

13

Haversian canals

Canals found in compacts bone through which blood vessels transport nutrients and oxygen to bone tissue and remove wastes.

14

Medullary cavity

Hollowed out central shaft of long bones that contain yellow bone marrow, which is chiefly comprised of fat cells

15

Cancellous bone

AKA spongy or trabecular bone, is much more porous and less dense than compact bone. Made up of interwoven fibers called trabecular, this type of bone can be found largely in the epiphysis and metaphysics of long bones and middle portion of most other bones. Contains red blood marrow

16

Red blood marrow

Consists of immature and mature red blood cells in various stages of development

17

Hematopoiesis

Is the formation of all types of blood cells in the bone marrow

18

Bone processes

Are enlarged areas that out from the bone to serve as attachments muscles, tendons, and ligaments.

19

Bone depressions

Are openings or hollow regions serving as connections between bones or passageways for blood vessels or nerves.

20

Sutures

The joints of the cranial bones

21

Fontanelles

The gaps of unossified tissue in the skull of an infant at birth

22

Bone head

Rounded head of a bone. Ball joint

23

Condyle

Rounded knuckle-like process

24

Epicondyle

Small rounded process above the condyle

25

Trochanters

Large and small processes for tendon attachments

26

Tuberosity

Small round elevation where tendons and muscles attach

27

Fissure

Narrow groove or slit-like opening

28

Foramen

Opening for blood vessels and nerves

29

Fossa

Shallow cavity in or on a bone

30

Sinus

Hollow cavity within a bone

31

Frontal bone

Forms the forehead and the roof of the bony sockets that contain the eyes.

32

Parietal bone

The two bones (one on each side of the skull) that form the roof and the upper part of the sides of the cranium.

33

Temporal bone

The 2 bones that form the lower sides and base of the cranium.each bone encloses an ear and contains a fossa for joining with the mandible.

34

Temporomandibular joint (TMJ)

Area of connection between the temporal and mandibular bones.

35

Occipital bone

Forms the back and base of the skull and joins the parietal and temporal bones forming a suture.

36

Foramen magnum

An opening through the inferior portion of the occipital bone through which the spinal cord passes.

37

Sphenoid bone

The bat shaped bone that extends behind the eyes and forms part of the base of the skull..

38

Ethmoid bone

The thin delicate bone that supports the nasal cavity and forms part of the sockets of the eyes.

39

Nasal bones

The two slender bones that support the bridge of the nose. They join with the frontal bone superiorly and form part of the nasal septum.

40

Lacrimal bones

The two small thin bones located at the corner of each eye. The lacrimal bones contain fossa for the lacrimal gland (tear gland) and canals for the lacrimal duct.

41

Maxillary bones

The two large bones that compose the massive upper jawbones. They are joined by a suture in the median plane. If the two bones do not come together normally before birth the condition known as cleft palate results.

42

Mandibular bone

The lower jawbone. Both the maxilla and the mandible contain the sockets called alveoli in which the teeth are imbedded.

43

Zygomatic bones

The two bones, one on each side of the face, that form the high portion of the cheek.

44

Vomer

The thin single flat bone that forms the lower portion of the nasal septum.

45

Sinuses

or air cavities,are located in specific places within the cranial and facial bones to lighten the skull and warm and moisten air as it passes through.

46

Vertebral column

Is composed of 26 bone segments, called vertebrae, that are arranged in 5 divisions from the base of the skull to the tailbone.

47

Vertebral body

Is the inner thick round anterior portion of the vertebrae.

48

Intervertebral disk

Lie between the body of one vertebra and the body of the one just below it. It is a pad of cartilage that provides flexibility and absorbs shocks to the vertebral column. A spinal disk herniation accurs when a disk tears causing a portion to bulge out into the neural canal.

49

Spinous process

Is the center portion of the posterior part of the vertebra. It is flanked on either side by the transverse processes.

50

Transverse process

Located on the posterior portion of the vertebra, there is one on either side of the spinous process.

51

Lamina

Is the bar like connection between the transverse and spinous processes of the vertebra

52

Neural tube

Is the space between the vertebral body and the vertebral arch through which the spinal cord passes.

53

Cervical vertebrae

The first 7 vertebrae of the spine, forming the bony aspect of the next. C-1 - C-7

54

Thoracic vertebrae

The second set of 12 vertebrae. These vertebrae articulate with 12 pairs of ribs. T-1 - T-12

55

Lumbar vertebrae

This set of 5 vertebrae. They are the strongest and largest of the backbones. They do not articulate with the ribs. L-1 - L-5

56

Sacral vertebrae

Are 5 separate bones that fuse In a young child. In an adult the sacrum is a slightly curved triangularly shaped bone.

57

Coccyx

Is the tailbone, and it, also is fused, having been formed from 4 small coccygeal bones

58

Ankle joint is made up of what bones?

Tibia, fibula and talus

59

Tarsals

Bones of the hind part of the foot (hind foot); these 7 short bones resembles the carpal bones of the wrist but are larger.

60

Calcaneous

The largest of the tarsal bones located in the hind foot, AKA the heel bone.

61

Metatarsals

Bones of the mid foot. There are five.

62

Acetabulum

Rounded depression,or socket,in the pelvis that joins the femur, forming the hip joint.

63

Acromion

Outward extension of the shoulder blade forming the point of the shoulder. It overlies the shoulder joint and articulates with the clavicle.

64

Manubrium

Upper portion of the sternum, articulates with the medial aspect of the clavicle

65

Mastoid process

Round projection on the temporal bone behind the ear

66

Olecranon

Large process on the proximal end of the ulna, the point of a flexed elbow

67

Exostosis

Bony growth (benign) arising from the surface of bone. Osteachondromas composed of cartilage and bone.

68

Types of fractures

Simple (closed) - bone broken but no open wound.
Compound (open) - bone broken and a fragment protrudes through an open wound.
Crepitus - crackling sound produced when bones rub against each other

69

Colles fracture

Near the wrist at distal end of radius.

70

Comminuted

Bone is splintered and crushed into several pieces.

71

Compression

Bone collapses or is compressed, occurs in vertebrae

72

Green stick

Bone is partially broken, breaks on one surface and bends on another. Often occurring in forearm.

73

Impacted

One fragment is driven firmly into the other, at the head of the femur or head of the humerus.

74

ORIF

Open Reduction / Internal Fixation

75

Osteomyelitis

Inflammation of bone and bone marrow secondary to infection

76

Suture joint

An immovable joint, like in the skull.

77

Synovial joints

Freely movable joints

78

Joint capsule

Surrounds the bones of a synovial joint, it is composed of fibrous tissue

79

Ligaments

Thickened bands of fibrous connective tissue, anchor one bone to another., and add considerable strength to the joint capsule in critical areas.

80

Synovial membranes

Lies under the synovial capsule and lines the synovial cavity between the bones

81

Synovial fluid

Contains water and nutrients that nourish as well as lubricates so that friction on the articulate cartilage is minimal.

82

Meniscus

Is a crescent shaped fibrocartilaginous structure that partially divides a joint cavity and acts as a protective cushion. It's in the knee

83

Arthritis

Inflammation of any joint

84

Osteoarthritis

Progressive, degenerative joint disease with loss of articular cartilage and hyper trophy of bone at articular surfaces

85

Rheumatoid arthritis

Chronic joint condition with inflammation and pain, caused by an autoimmune reaction against joint tissue, particularly the synovial membrane.

86

Flexion

Decreasing the angle between two bones, bending a limb

87

Extension

Increasing the angle between two limbs, straightening out a limb

88

Abduction

Movement away from the midline of the body.

89

Adduction

Movement toward the midline of the body

90

Rotation

Internal rotation

External rotation

Circular movement around an axis

Toward the center of the body

Away from the center of the body

91

Dorsiflextion

Decreasing the angle of the ankle joint so the foot bends backward

92

Plantar flexion

Motion that extends the foot downward like stepping on the gas

93

Supination

As applied to the hand and forearm, the act of turning the palm up.

94

Pronation

The act of turning the palm down

95

Fascia

Fibrous membrane separating and enveloping muscles

96

AC

Acromioclavicular Joint

97

ACL

Anterior Cruciate Ligament

98

ANA

Antinuclear Antibody - indicator of systemic lupus erythematosus

99

BMD

Bone Mineral Density

100

CK

Creating Kinase, enzyme elevated in muscle disease

101

CTS

Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

102

DO

Doctor of Osteopathy

103

DTRs

Deep Tendon Reflexes

104

EMG

Electromyography

105

ESR (sed rate)

Erythrocytes sedimentation rate, indicates inflammation

106

IM

Intramuscular

107

RF

Rheumatoid Factor

108

ROM

Range of Motion

109

SLE

Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

110

TKR

Total Knee Replacement

111

THR

Total Hip Replacement

112

Capillary sticks come from which 2 places most commonly

Finger sticks - middle or ring finger of non-dominate hand

Heel sticks - newborns - outer part of the heel. PKU

Earlobe

Wipe away first drop of blood

113

6 sites you should not choose for venipuncture.

Mastectomy side
Shunt
Burned area
Edematous limb
IV fluids running
Hematoma