Flashcards in HA&T Chapter 15 Deck (114):
Immature bone cells
Bone phagocytes. Large cells that digest bony tissue
Small rounded bones, resembling sesame seeds in shape. They are found near joints and increase the efficiency of muscles near a particular joint. Kneecap is the largest example.
Are found covering soft body parts. I.e. skull, shoulder blades, ribs, and pelvic bones
Are found in the wrist and ankle. Are small and irregularly shaped.
Found in the thigh, lower leg, upper and lower arm. These bones are very strong, and are broad at the ends where they join up with other bones. They have large areas for muscle attachment.
Shaft, or middle region of a long bone.
Each end of a long bone.
Epiphyseal line or plate
Represents an area of cartilage tissue the is constantly being replaced by new bone tissue as the bone grows. AKA growth plate
Is the flared portion of the bone. It lies between the epiphysis and the diaphysis, adjacent to epiphyseal plate.
Is a strong fibrous vascular membrane that covers the surface of long bones, except at the epiphyses. Has nerve supply. Other types of bones also covered with periosteum.
The ends of long bones and the surface of any bone that meets another bone to form a joint are covered with articulate cartilage. Cartilage is a strong, thick, slick tissue. It cushions joint and allows it to moves smoothly
Compact (cortical) bone
Is a layer of hard dense bone that lies under the periosteum in all bones and is located chiefly around diaphysis of long bones.
Canals found in compacts bone through which blood vessels transport nutrients and oxygen to bone tissue and remove wastes.
Hollowed out central shaft of long bones that contain yellow bone marrow, which is chiefly comprised of fat cells
AKA spongy or trabecular bone, is much more porous and less dense than compact bone. Made up of interwoven fibers called trabecular, this type of bone can be found largely in the epiphysis and metaphysics of long bones and middle portion of most other bones. Contains red blood marrow
Red blood marrow
Consists of immature and mature red blood cells in various stages of development
Is the formation of all types of blood cells in the bone marrow
Are enlarged areas that out from the bone to serve as attachments muscles, tendons, and ligaments.
Are openings or hollow regions serving as connections between bones or passageways for blood vessels or nerves.
The joints of the cranial bones
The gaps of unossified tissue in the skull of an infant at birth
Rounded head of a bone. Ball joint
Rounded knuckle-like process
Small rounded process above the condyle
Large and small processes for tendon attachments
Small round elevation where tendons and muscles attach
Narrow groove or slit-like opening
Opening for blood vessels and nerves
Shallow cavity in or on a bone
Hollow cavity within a bone
Forms the forehead and the roof of the bony sockets that contain the eyes.
The two bones (one on each side of the skull) that form the roof and the upper part of the sides of the cranium.
The 2 bones that form the lower sides and base of the cranium.each bone encloses an ear and contains a fossa for joining with the mandible.
Temporomandibular joint (TMJ)
Area of connection between the temporal and mandibular bones.
Forms the back and base of the skull and joins the parietal and temporal bones forming a suture.
An opening through the inferior portion of the occipital bone through which the spinal cord passes.
The bat shaped bone that extends behind the eyes and forms part of the base of the skull..
The thin delicate bone that supports the nasal cavity and forms part of the sockets of the eyes.
The two slender bones that support the bridge of the nose. They join with the frontal bone superiorly and form part of the nasal septum.
The two small thin bones located at the corner of each eye. The lacrimal bones contain fossa for the lacrimal gland (tear gland) and canals for the lacrimal duct.
The two large bones that compose the massive upper jawbones. They are joined by a suture in the median plane. If the two bones do not come together normally before birth the condition known as cleft palate results.
The lower jawbone. Both the maxilla and the mandible contain the sockets called alveoli in which the teeth are imbedded.
The two bones, one on each side of the face, that form the high portion of the cheek.
The thin single flat bone that forms the lower portion of the nasal septum.
or air cavities,are located in specific places within the cranial and facial bones to lighten the skull and warm and moisten air as it passes through.
Is composed of 26 bone segments, called vertebrae, that are arranged in 5 divisions from the base of the skull to the tailbone.
Is the inner thick round anterior portion of the vertebrae.
Lie between the body of one vertebra and the body of the one just below it. It is a pad of cartilage that provides flexibility and absorbs shocks to the vertebral column. A spinal disk herniation accurs when a disk tears causing a portion to bulge out into the neural canal.
Is the center portion of the posterior part of the vertebra. It is flanked on either side by the transverse processes.
Located on the posterior portion of the vertebra, there is one on either side of the spinous process.
Is the bar like connection between the transverse and spinous processes of the vertebra
Is the space between the vertebral body and the vertebral arch through which the spinal cord passes.
The first 7 vertebrae of the spine, forming the bony aspect of the next. C-1 - C-7
The second set of 12 vertebrae. These vertebrae articulate with 12 pairs of ribs. T-1 - T-12
This set of 5 vertebrae. They are the strongest and largest of the backbones. They do not articulate with the ribs. L-1 - L-5
Are 5 separate bones that fuse In a young child. In an adult the sacrum is a slightly curved triangularly shaped bone.
Is the tailbone, and it, also is fused, having been formed from 4 small coccygeal bones
Ankle joint is made up of what bones?
Tibia, fibula and talus
Bones of the hind part of the foot (hind foot); these 7 short bones resembles the carpal bones of the wrist but are larger.
The largest of the tarsal bones located in the hind foot, AKA the heel bone.
Bones of the mid foot. There are five.
Rounded depression,or socket,in the pelvis that joins the femur, forming the hip joint.
Outward extension of the shoulder blade forming the point of the shoulder. It overlies the shoulder joint and articulates with the clavicle.
Upper portion of the sternum, articulates with the medial aspect of the clavicle
Round projection on the temporal bone behind the ear
Large process on the proximal end of the ulna, the point of a flexed elbow
Bony growth (benign) arising from the surface of bone. Osteachondromas composed of cartilage and bone.
Types of fractures
Simple (closed) - bone broken but no open wound.
Compound (open) - bone broken and a fragment protrudes through an open wound.
Crepitus - crackling sound produced when bones rub against each other
Near the wrist at distal end of radius.
Bone is splintered and crushed into several pieces.
Bone collapses or is compressed, occurs in vertebrae
Bone is partially broken, breaks on one surface and bends on another. Often occurring in forearm.
One fragment is driven firmly into the other, at the head of the femur or head of the humerus.
Open Reduction / Internal Fixation
Inflammation of bone and bone marrow secondary to infection
An immovable joint, like in the skull.
Freely movable joints
Surrounds the bones of a synovial joint, it is composed of fibrous tissue
Thickened bands of fibrous connective tissue, anchor one bone to another., and add considerable strength to the joint capsule in critical areas.
Lies under the synovial capsule and lines the synovial cavity between the bones
Contains water and nutrients that nourish as well as lubricates so that friction on the articulate cartilage is minimal.
Is a crescent shaped fibrocartilaginous structure that partially divides a joint cavity and acts as a protective cushion. It's in the knee
Inflammation of any joint
Progressive, degenerative joint disease with loss of articular cartilage and hyper trophy of bone at articular surfaces
Chronic joint condition with inflammation and pain, caused by an autoimmune reaction against joint tissue, particularly the synovial membrane.
Decreasing the angle between two bones, bending a limb
Increasing the angle between two limbs, straightening out a limb
Movement away from the midline of the body.
Movement toward the midline of the body
Circular movement around an axis
Toward the center of the body
Away from the center of the body
Decreasing the angle of the ankle joint so the foot bends backward
Motion that extends the foot downward like stepping on the gas
As applied to the hand and forearm, the act of turning the palm up.
The act of turning the palm down
Fibrous membrane separating and enveloping muscles
Anterior Cruciate Ligament
Antinuclear Antibody - indicator of systemic lupus erythematosus
Bone Mineral Density
Creating Kinase, enzyme elevated in muscle disease
Carpal Tunnel Syndrome
Doctor of Osteopathy
Deep Tendon Reflexes
ESR (sed rate)
Erythrocytes sedimentation rate, indicates inflammation
Range of Motion
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
Total Knee Replacement
Total Hip Replacement
Capillary sticks come from which 2 places most commonly
Finger sticks - middle or ring finger of non-dominate hand
Heel sticks - newborns - outer part of the heel. PKU
Wipe away first drop of blood