Haematology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Haematology Deck (33):
1

What is the normal range for sodium?

135-145mmol/L

2

What is the normal range for potassium?

3.5-5mmol/L

3

What is the normal range for creatinine?

70-150umol/L

4

What is the normal range for urea?

2.5-6.7mmol/L

5

What is normal eGFR?

>90

6

What is the normal range for bilirubin?

3-17ummol/L

7

What is the normal range for ALT?
(and what is ALT?)

5-35iu/L
Alanine aminotransferase

8

What is the normal range for AST?
(and what is AST?)

5-35iu/L
Aspartate transaminase

9

What is the normal range for ALP?
(and what is ALP?)

30-150iu/L
Alkaline phosphatase

10

What is the normal range for albumin?

35-50g/L

11

What is the normal range for calcium?

2.12-2.65mmol/L

12

What is the normal range for haemoglobin?

Men: 130-180g/L
Women: 115-160g/L

13

What is the normal range for blood pH?

7.35-7.45

14

What is the normal partial pressure of CO2?

4.7-6.0kPa

15

What is the normal partial pressure of O2?

>10.6kPa

16

What is the normal base excess?

+/-2mmol/L

17

What is the definition of an acute leukaemia?

Presence of 20% blast cells or greater at time of presentation

18

What are Auer rods pathognomonic of?

AML

19

What is the difference between AML and ALL

AML is big and ALL is smALL

Big referring to...
- Adults vs kids
- Blast size
- Mortality rate
- Cytoplasm in mutated cells
- Number of nucleoli
- Number of granule (and Auer rods)

20

What is the presentation of AML and ALL?

Pancytopenia (leading to infection, fevers)
Thrombocytopenia
Bone pain due to accumulation of blast cells in bone marrow (sternum = common)
Gingival hyperplasia (AML)
Hepatosplenomegaly (ALL)

May present as hyperleukosis syndrome

21

What is hyperleukosis syndrome?

A medical emergency associated with AML and ALL

Large number of blast cells can interfere with circulation leading to hypoxia and haemorrhage
- Can cause diffuse pulmonary infiltrates, CNS bleeding, respiratory distress, altered mental state

22

What is CML?

Chronic myeloid leukaemia - Myeloproliferative disorder characterised by increased proliferation of the granulocytic cell line without the loss of their capacity to differentiate

Caused by Philadelphia chromosome (Ph)
- Translocation between chromosome 9 and 22
=> bar-abl fusion genre, an activated tyrosine kinase

23

What is CLL?

Indolent disease characterised by clinical malignancy of mature B-cells

Most common leukaemia

24

What are the clinical phases of CML?

Chronic phase (85% diagnoses)
- Few blasts (

25

What are the clinical features of CML?

20-50% are symptomatic when diagnosed
Non-specific symptoms
- Fatigue, weight loss, malaise, excessive sweating, fe ER
Secondary to splenic involvement
- Early satiety, LUQ pain/fullness, shoulder tip pain
Anaemia
Bleeding
Pruritis

26

What are the clinical feature of CLL?

25% asymptomatic
5-10% present with B-symptoms (weight loss, night sweats, fatigue, fever)
Lymphadenopathy
Splenomegaly
Hepatomegaly
Immune dysregulation
Bone marrow failure (Late presentation due to marrow involvement)

27

What is the classic presentation of Hodgkin's lymphoma?

Firm, rubbery, non-tender and painless enlargement of superficial lymph nodes, most commonly in the cervical region

28

What is the definition of Hodgkin's lymphoma?

Malignant proliferation of lymphoid cells with Reed-Sternbergs cells (thought to arise from germinal centre B-cells)

29

What is the epidemiology of Hodgkin's lymphoma?

Bimodal distribution with peaks at 20yr and >50yr

Association with EBV in up to 50% of cases, causal role not determined

30

What is the definition of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma?

Malignant proliferation of lymphoid cells of progenitor or mature B- or T- cells

31

What are the clinical features of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma?

Painless superficial lymphadenopathy
Usually presents as widespread disease
Constitutional symptoms not as common as in Hodgkin's lymphoma
Hepatosplenomegaly

Extranodal involvement - GI tract; also testes, bone and kidneys

32

What is multiple myeloma?

Neoplastic clinal proliferation of plasma cells producing a monoclonal immunoglobulin, resulting in end organ dysfunction

33

What are the clinical features of multiple myeloma?

Bone disease - pain, bony tenderness, pathological fractures
- Lytic lesions are classical (skull, spine, proximal long bones, ribs)
Anaemia
Infections
Hypercalcaemia
Renal disease
Bleeding
Hyper-viscosity
Neuro - weakness, pain, paraesthesia