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Flashcards in Haemolysis Deck (13):
1

what is haemolysis

premature red blood cell destruction

2

why are red blood cells susceptible to damage

biconcave shape
limited metabolic reserve
no nucleus so cant generate new proteins

3

what happens in haemolytic anaemia

rate of destruction exceeds rate of production

4

what are the consequences of haemolysis

erythoid hyperplasia
excess break down products e,g bilirubin

5

what is the most common type of haemolysis

extravascular

6

what is extravascular haemolysis

the blood cells are take up by spleen(mainly)

there is hyperplasia at destruction site

release of protoporphyrin

normal products in excess

7

what happens in intravascular haemolysis

this can be life threatening!!

the cells are destroyed in circulation and spill their contents causing:

haemogloninaemia
haemoglobinuria ( pink urine)

8

what are the 2 types of autoimmune haemolysis?

warm (IgG)

cold ( IgM)

these can be idiopathic, due to connective tissue disease, infection, drugs, lymphoproliferative disorders

9

what are the 2 types of alloimmune haemolysis?

immune response e.g to transfusion reaction

passive antibody transfer e,g haemolytic disease of newborn

10

name some causes of acquired haemolysis

burns
infection-malaria
leaky heart valve
HUS- e.coli 0157

11

name some causes of haemolysis due to abnormal cell membrane

Vit E def
liver disease
hereditary spherocytosis

12

name some causes of haemolysis due to abnormal red blood cell metabolism

failure to produce ATP

failure to cope with oxidative stress ( G6PD defieiency)- no glutathion produced

13

name a cause of haemolysis due to abnormal haem

sickle cell