What are the four basic clues that can help you recognize the presence of hazardous material?
-the occupancy and location of a fixed facility
-placards, labels, and markings
-the shape and design of the containers involved
-shipping papers or facility documents
The _________ regulates not only the packaging and vehicles used in transportation, but also the type of labels and placards that must be attached to both containers and vessels.
Department of Transportation
What are DOT placards?
-Diamond shaped sign (10 ¾ inches on each side) that generally must be affixed on each side and each end of vehicles carrying hazardous materials.-generally indicate the primary hazards or the most dangerous property associated with the material being transported
What is the DOT 4 digit identification number?
-id number that must appear in the center (can replace class name for bulk shipments) or beside placard.
-cannot replace class name for radioactive, explosives, or on the dangerous placard
What is a subsidiary placard?
-Placard used to indicate the secondary hazards of cargo
-required for shipments that are dangerous when wet or inhalation hazard but have different primary hazard
-no 4 digit id number used
-permitted but not required
Which categories of materials must always be placarded with their primary hazard placards regardless of the amount being transported?
Table 1 Materials:Explosives 1.2, 1.2, 1.3 Poison Gas Dangerous When Wet PoisonRadioactive
Table 2 materials must be placarded for bulk shipments of _______ lbs of that material. The dangerous placard can be used if a shipment contains non-bulk packages of 2 or more Table 2 materials if the total amount of each class of materials is less than ________ lbs loaded at one location.
What are DOT labels?
-4 inch diamonds affixed to non-bulk packages of hazardous materials; required for the same materials placards are required for
-labels aren’t limited to primary hazard (must be labeled for each hazard class)
-label affixed near package closure, next to each other, and next to material name
DOT background color Orange
DOT background color Red
DOT background color Red with white band in the center
DOT background color Green
DOT background color white over red
*The clown wearing a white shirt and read pants spontaneously does his combustible trick
DOT background color white
DOT background color white with vertical red stripes
*The white and red striped wallpaper is flammable (solid)
DOT background color yellow
DOT background color white over yellow
*the white sign turned yellow on the bottom because of the radiation
DOT background color white over black
DOT background color blue
Dangerous when wet
DOT background color black stripes over white
Miscellaneous hazardous material
DOT Bursting Ball symbol
DOT Flame Symbol
DOW W with a slash through it symbol
Dangerous when wet
DOT Wheat shaft with X thru it symbol
Keep away from food
DOT skull and crossbones symbol
DOT circle with flame symbol
Oxidizing material/organic peroxide
DOT Cylinder symbol
DOT Trefoil (propeller) symbol
*Propellers are radioative
DOT test tube with hand/metal symbol
*test tubes are corrosive to your hands
DOT biohazard symbol
*biohazards have infections
What does the term residue indicate?
That a container has been emptied but a harmful residue may still exist. (Residue placard only required on rail cars)
The _________ hazard class numbers must appear in the bottom of the diamond on both placards and numbers. They are not found on subsidiary placards.
Hazard class 1 indicates
Hazard class 2 indicates
Hazard class 3 indicates
Hazard class 4 indicates
Flammable solid/dangerous when wet/spontaneously combustible
Hazard class 5 indicates
Hazard class 6 indicates
Hazard class 7 indicates
Hazard class 8 indicates
Hazard class 9 indicates
ORMS other regulated materials
4 digit id number assigned to a hazardous material, placed either in the center of the placard or next to it
What is the NFPA 704 marking system?
-National fire protection agency marking system for fixed sites (not used in transportation), not federally regulated.-Uses a diamond divided into color coded quadrants
Describe the NFPA 704 Diamond
Left quadrant: Health Hazard (blue)Top: Flammability (red)Right: reactivity (yellow)Bottom: Special hazards (white)*0-4/no risk-greatest risk
Describe the EPA labeling requirements
-Regulates labeling of agricultural chemicals and pesticides -must have name, manufacturer, and product number, active ingredients and warning
__________ requires that containers of hazardous chemicals in workplaces be labeled or tagged with the name of the hazardous chemical and appropriate warning hazard.
-OSHA Occupational Safety and health Administration
What are tank car initials?
-Also known as reporting marks-used to id tank cars/indicates ownership-numbers stenciled to the left on both sides of the car and on both ends
The _______ and ________ of containers used in transportation and storage may indicate when hazardous materials are present.
Shape and design
Both bulk and non-bulk containers are used to transport hazardous materials. Bulk containers hold the hazardous material without an __________ form of containment.
What are the max capacities for bulk containers?
-119 gallons/450 liters for containers of liquid-882 lbs for solids-water capacity greater than 1000 lbs for gas*non bulk containers are everything with less
What is the cross section?
The tanks shape as it appears from behind, either circular or elliptical
Tank ends are called _______ and are an indication of internal pressure.
Products carried in tanks with distinctively rounded heads are usually under _______ pressure.
Products carried in tanks with flat heads are under _________ pressure.
Many tanks are compartmented and each compartment is considered __________ and each may carry a different class of material.
A separate tank
What are pressure cargo tanks?
-Tanks that transport gases that have been liquefied through compression and the contents must remain under pressure to maintain their liquid state.
-have rounded heads and circular cross section
-top 2/3 or entire tank is reflective and or painted white
-carry propane, butane, chlorine, anhydrous ammonia,
Describe a low pressure cargo tank
-circular cross section
-may slant noticeably downward toward the unloading piping located either at the center or the rear tank
-may have rollover protection/catwalk
-carry flammable or combustible liquids, mild corrosives and poisons
What is a catwalk?
-Rollover protection extending from the front of the tank to the back of the tank-usually indicates that the tank has more than one manhole assembly and is compartmentalized
What is a non pressure cargo tank?
-elliptical cross sections and flat heads-usually compartmented (# of discharge valves underneath indicate # of compartments)-typically carry gasoline or fuel
Describe the corrosive liquid cargo tank.
-same basic configuration of low pressure cargo tank-circular cross section-flat heads-often smaller in diameter (due to weight)-often have visible stiffening rings running vertically around the tank for added strength
Describe the cryogenic liquid cargo tank
-specially designed to carry gasses that have been liquefied thru temperature reduction-circular cross sections-rounded heads-have fittings cabinet-some evaporation will occur as the material is slowly warmed by outside temperature (common to observe vapor discharge from relief valve)
Describe Tube Trailers
-carry 2-20 long thin cylinders permanently mounted on semi trailer-tubes 9-48 inches-carry gas under pressure; don’t carry liquefied gases
Describe dry bulk commodity carriers
-have large sloping V-shaped unloading compartments located at bottom of trailer
-rear mounted air compressor
-carry dry materials such as fertilizer, oxidizers, and plastics
The specific ________________ in a tank car determines how the tank will be constructed, as well as its size, fittings, linings, and other features.
Type of materials to be carried
Who are often the best source of information when a rail incident occurs?
Most tank cars carry ________________.
Only a single commodity.
What is a head shield?
-Feature that is added to pressure tank cars transporting hazardous materials.
-protect heads of cars from puncture by the coupling mechanism
Describe pressure tank cars
-pressures ranging from 100-600 psig
-fittings located inside protective housing mounted on the manway cover plate at the top center of the tank
Describe Non pressure tank cars
-transport materials at vapor pressures below 25 psig at 105-115 F
-distinguishable from pressure tank cars with the visible manway cover and fittings at the top of the tank
-can have up to 6 compartments
Describe Corrosive Liquid tank Cars
-resemble most other non pressure tank cars
-some painted with a wide band of corrosion resistant paint running vertically around the tank car at the manway
Describe Cryogenic tank Cars
-carry low pressure extremely cold refrigerated liquids (minus 30 F and below)
-tank within a tank style
-space between filled within insulation; kept under vacuum; protects from ambient temps for 30 days
-common to see venting
-do not apply water to valve area; may freeze/block valve
Describe High Pressure Tube Cars
-40 foot, box type, open frame cars
-visible cluster of 30 noninsulated steel cylinders permanently attached to car
-pressures are 300-5000 psig
Describe Covered Hopper Cars
-rail cars designed to carry dry commodities
-has two or more cone shaped structures on the bottom
Describe Ton Containers
-cylindrical with rounded heads
Describe Tank Containers
-single metal tank mounted inside a sturdy metal supporting frame
-intermodal (rail, highway, water)
Describe Supporting Frame
Box type: encloses tank in a cagelike framework
Beam type: uses frame structures only at the ends of the tanks
Describe non-pressure tank containers
-aka intermodal or IM portable tanks
-generally transport liquid and solid materials
-comprise over 90% of the total # of tank containers.
Describe pressure tank containers
-less common in transport
-transport gases liquefied under pressure
-used to carry liquid petroleum products, natural and manufactured gas
Documents for fixed facilities include ____________.
-used to carry liquid petroleum products, natural and manufactured gas
What is an MSDS
Material Safety data Sheet
-provides info about physical and chemical properties of material, hazards associated, basic response directions.
What are the available reference books?
DOT Emergency response Guidebook
NIOSH Pocket Guide to Hazardous Materials
What are the disadvantages of the DOT emergency response guidebook?
-evacuation table good for only 30 min
-recommended actions inappropriate in some instances
Using your senses (other than vision) to detect a hazardous material is _____________.
Unsafe and unacceptable
What are the three states of matter?
Solid, Liquid, Gas
Substances can change from one state to another as changes occur in ________ or ________, or both. A change in a materials state is likely to affect the degree of _________ posed by the material.
-temperature -pressure -hazard
A ___________ is a substance that retains a definite size and shape under normal conditions.
The temperature at which a solid melts and becomes a liquid is known as the ____________.
When solids change directly to gas, the process is known as ____________.
_________ have a specific volume but no specific shape.
The temperature at which a liquid freezes.
The temperature at which a liquid changes to a gas.
The boiling point of a liquid is related to its ___________, which is a measure of the ability to evaporate (change from liquid to gas).
A liquid in a gas state.
The ______ the vapor pressure the more likely a liquid is to evaporate.
As temperature increases, the vapor pressure of a liquid ____________.
If the temperature is high enough, the vapor pressure rises until it equals __________ pressure. At this point the liquid boils and becomes a vapor.
Flammable liquids with ______ vapor pressures are generally more dangerous than those with ___________ vapor pressures.
The temperature at which a liquid generates enough vapors to create an ignitable mixture near the surface of the liquid.
The concentration of a flammable vapor or gas in air.
Below the lower explosive limit (LEL) the mixture is too ______.
Above the upper explosive limit (UEL) the mixture is too ______.
A substance that expands or is compressed readily and has no independent shape or volume.
When a gas is cooled below its boiling point it condenses to become a______________.
To evaluate the hazard posed by a gas, you must know or estimate its _______________.
Concentration in air.
_______________ is a concept used to measure the weight of solids and liquids in comparison to an equal volume of water. It indicates whether it will sink or float in water.
Water has a specific gravity of _____.
A specific gravity greater than 1 will _____. A specific gravity less than 1 will ______.
The degree to which one substances mixes with another. (solution)
Solute vs Solvent
Solute: substance present in lesser amount
Solvent: substance present in greater amount
If a solute mixes completely with a solvent, it is said to be ________ with that solvent.
Liquid is infinitely soluble in water
Concept used to measure the weight of gases in comparison to an equal volume of air. (Air vapor density of 1)
Substances with vapor densities greater than one ___ in air while those less than one ______ in air.
The mass that is assigned to atoms or molecules that make up a chemical.
Vapors and gases with molecular weights greater than __________ tend to sink in air. Vapors of flammable liquids also tend to sink in air.
___________ result when two or more substances combine to form new chemicals and energy is either absorbed or released.
The rate at which chemical reactions occur depends on a number of factors (4)…
Temperature: increased temp speeds reaction
Concentration: increasing the concentrations of reacting materials increases rate
Pressure: increasing pressures increases speed
What is a catalyst
A substance that increases the rate of chemical reactions but is not changed by it.
_______ materials are those that react when exposed to water
____________ materials are those that react when exposed to air.
What scales are used to measure air?
Scale at which water boils at 100 and freezes at 0.
Centigrade/CelsiusF=(Cx 9/5) + 32
Scale at which water boils at 212 and freezes at 32.
FahrenheitC=(F-32) x 5/9
Temperature at which a material starts to burn without a flame or other ignition source present. At this temperature gases or vapors are consumed in fire as rapidly as they are formed, and the material continues self-sustained combustion.
Ignition temperature (autoignition temperature)
The scale indicating the acidity or alkalinity.
PH scale; 0-14; 7 is neutral
Values lower than 7 indicate increasing _______ while those higher than 7 indicate increasing _______ on the ph scale.
The ph scale is a _______ scale.
When dealing with acids and bases, it is important to obtain information about the ________ of the acid or base which indicates the percentage of the material in water.
________ involves the property of certain elements to emit energy that can damage living organisms.
________ particles can travel only a short distance from their source (4 inches) and can be stopped by a thin film of water or sheet of paper.
_____ particles can travel about 30 feet and can penetrate about 1-11/2 inches of wood and thru 1/10 or ½ inch of human skin.
Alpha and Beta particles cause the most harm if they are ______.
Ingested or swallowed.
_____ are only stopped with dense shielding, such as several inches of lead or several feet of concrete.
___________ can be used to minimize exposure to radiation.
_____________ is the most effective means of reducing exposure.
By doubling the distance from the source, an individual can _______ the amount of radiation exposure.