Flashcards in Head & Neck Lab 1 Deck (106):
What is neurocranium and viscerocranium?
Neurocranium = brain case
Viscerocranium = bones of lower face
Where is the neurocranium thin (i.e. prone to fracture)?
Sites covered by muscles, pneumatized, perforated, sutures not yet fully fused
What are signs of fracture of the base of the skull?
subconjunctival hemorrhage, bleeding into nose or mouth, CSF leakage into nose, bleading or CSF leakage from ear
What are the three parts of the frontal bone?
Squamous part (forehead), nasal part (root of nose), orbital part (roofs of orbits)
What are the three parts of the occipital bone?
basilar part (anterior to foramen magnum), lateral part (lateral to foramen magnum), squamous part (posterior part)
What is the function of the mastoid process?
attachment point of several muscles, SCM; air cells connected to middle ear (by antrum), provides a route for infection from the middle ear (mastoiditis)
What is the function of the styloid process?
attachment for several muscles associated with the tongue and larynx
The mastoid process and styloid process are features of the ___ part of the ___ bone
petrous part of the temporal bone
True or False: The tympanic cavity is part of the petrous part of the temporal bone
What other essential components of the organs are hearing and vestibular system are within the interior portion of the petrous part of the temporal bone?
cochlea, semicircular canals, utricle, saccule
What surrounds the external acoustic meatus?
Tympanic part of temporal bone
What are two features of the squamous part of the temporal bone?
zygomatic process, mandibular fossa
What does the sella turcica include?
tuberculum sellae, hypophysial fossa and dorsum sellae
Where does the pituitary gland reside?
within the hypophysial fossa
What part of what bone includes pterygoid process (medial & lateral plates)?
Greater wing of sphenoid
WHich conchae is visible through the anterior nasal aperture?
middle nasal conchae
Coronal suture between
frontal and parietal bones
sagittal suture between, from ___ to ___
parietal bones; bregma to lambda
lambdoid suture between
occipital bone and parietal bones
squamous suture between, from ___ to ___
parietal bone and temporal bone, from asterion to pteroid
What is the pterion?
between parietal bone and greater wing of sphenoid, area around short suture
What are two plates of the palatine bones?
perpendicular plate and horizontal plate
What two processes comprise the zygomatic bone?
temporal process and frontal process
What bones comprise the hard palate?
palatine process of maxilla, palatine bones
True or False: The mandible is part of the cranium.
What muscle attaches at the ramus of the mandible?
What muscle attaches at the coronoid process?
temporalis and masseter muscles
What are the boundaries of the anterior cranial fossa and what part of the brain is located there?
cribiform plate of ethmoid
orbital part of frontal bone
lesser wing of sphenoid
What are the boundaries of the middle cranial fossa and what part of the brain is located there?
greater wing and body of sphenoid
petrous and squamous parts of temporal bone
What are the boundaries of the posterior cranial fossa and what part of the brain is located there?
petrous part of temporal bones
cerebellum & brainstem
What is contained in the pterygopalatine fossa?
components of maxillary nerve and artery
What passes through the supraorbital foramen?
supraorbital nerve - cutaneous sensory branch of V1
What passes through the infraorbital foramen?
infraorbital nerve - cutaneous sensory branch of V2
What passes through the mental foramen?
mental nerve - cutaneous sensory branch of V3
What passes through the cribiform foramina?
olfactory nerves from nasal cavity to olfactory bulb
What passes through the optic canal to orbital cavity?
optic nerve, opthalmic artery
What passes through the superior orbital fissure to orbital cavity?
III, IV, VI, V1
What passes through the foramen rotundum
What passes through the foramen ovale?
What passes through the foramen spinosum?
middle meningeal artery, branch of maxillary artery
What passes through the carotid canal?
internal carotid artery
What passes through the internal acoustic meatus?
facial nerve (exits through stylomastoid foramen)
CN VIII from inner ear
What passes through the jugular foramen?
IX, X, XI, internal jugular vein
What passes through the foramen magnum?
spinal cord, vertebral arteries, spinal roots of XI
What passes through the hypoglossal canal?
All of the muscles of facial expression are innervated by
branches of CN VII
What are the muscles of the auricle?
auricularis anterior, auricularis superior, auricularis posterior
What is the action of orbicularis oculi? What are its two parts?
palpebral and orbital parts - tightly closes eyelids
What are three muscles of the nose?
procerus, nasalis, depressor septi nasi
What is the action of orbicularis oris?
closes the mouth
What are the muscles of the upper lip? WHat are their actions?
elevate upper lip and/or angle of mouth
levator labii superioris alaeque nasi
levator labii superiorir
levator anguli oris
What are the muscles of the lower lip? What are their actions?
Depress lower lip and/or angle of mouth
depressor labii inferioris
depressor anguli oris
What is the action of the buccinator?
compress cheek against molar teeth and gums
What is the "danger zone"?
Loose CT layer of scalp - ease by which infectious agents could spread through to it valveless emissary veins that drain into the intracranial venous system
What are the components of the SCALP?
Connective tissue - richly vascular
Aponeurosis epicranialis - part of epicranius muscle
Pericranium - periosteum of cranium
What bone forms the roof of the nasal cavity?
cribiform plate of ethmoid
What two bones form the bony nasal septum?
ethmoid and vomer
What are the boundaries of the nasal cavity?
crifiborm plate (superior)
nasal septum (medial)
hard palate (inferior)
What do nasal conchae do?
direct air inhaled through the nose to flow over a large surface of nasal mucosa to entrap particles and for climate-control
What is the function of nasal meatus?
communciation with one or more sinuses, allowing drainage for mucous but also providing potential routes for infection
What air cells open in the superior nasal meatus?
ethmoidal air cells
What sinuses open in middle nasal meatus?
What opening is included in the inferior nasal meatus?
nasolacrimal duct (drainage of tears from the surface of the eye)
What is the name for the posterior nasal aperture?
What type of cells line the respiratory part of the nasal cavity?
What type of cells lines the olfactory part of the nasal cavity?
olfactory (sensory) epithelium
What types of cells line the sinuses? What do they produce?
What may cause sinusitis?
blockage of drainage into nasal cavities or sinus infection
Where do the frontal sinuses open?
middle nasal meatus
Where do the maxillary sinuses open?
middle nasal meatus
Where do the sphenoidal sinuses open?
Where do ethmoidal air cells open?
middle & superior nasal meatus
What tonsil is contained in the vault of pharynx?
The auditory tube is usually open/closed
How can one open the auditory tube? What happens when it opens?
muscles associated with the torus tubarius
equalization of pressure of middle ear
drain mucous from middle ear
can be a route for infection of middle ear (nearby tubal tonsil)
What muscles are contained in the torus tubarius that help open the auditory tube?
levator veli palatini muscle
Where is the most common site for nasopharyngeal carcinoma?
What is the function of the external ear?
collection & transmission of sound waves
What are the three components of the external ear?
auricle (pinna), external acoustic meatus, tympanic membrane
What is the tympanic membrane?
middle ear; air filled space in petrous part of temporal bone
Where is the bony external acoustic meatus?
tympanic part of temporal bone
What are the three ossicles?
stapes, incus, malleus
What is the function of the ossicles?
sound waves transduced into mechanical movements of ossicles
What are the muscles of auditory ossicles?
What is the function of tensor tympani?
applies tension to tympanic membrane via insertion on malleus; dampens sensation of head-generating noise, e.g. chewing, swallowing, etc
What is the innervation of tensor tympani?
What is the function of stapedius?
dampens vibrations via insertion on stapes; thought to be protective against loud external noise
What is the innervation of stapedius?
What is the function of the inner ear?
conversion of fluid waves to neural activity
Where is the bony labyrinth?
petrous part of temporal bone
What is the membranous labyrinth?
tubes and chambers containing endolymph
the space between the bone and membranous labyrinth is filled with
What are the components of the bony labyrinth?
vestibule (contains utricle & saccule)
semicircular canals (contain semicircular ducts)
cochlea (contains cochlear labyrinth)
What are the components of the membranous labyrinth?
vestibular labyrinth (otolithic organs: utricle and saccule)
cochlear labyrinth (cochlear duct)
What does the utricle detect?
linear accelerations and head tilts in the horizontal plane
What does the saccule detect?
linear accelerations and head tilts in the vertical pain
What does the cochlear labyrinth (cochlear duct) detect?
organ of hearing; detects fluid waves produced by action of the stapes on the oval window
What is the action of the superior rectus muscle?
elevates and adducts eyeball
What is the action of the inferior rectus muscle?
depresses and adducts eyeball
What is the action of the medial rectus muscle?
What is the action of the lateral rectus muscle?
What is the action of the inferior oblique muscle?
elevates and abducts eyeball
What is the action of the superior oblique muscle?
depresses and abducts eyeball
What is the function of the cornea? Is it vascularized?
refraction (projection of light on retina)
What makes up the fibrous layer of the eyeball (corneosclera)?