Head & Neck Lab 1 Flashcards Preview

Neuroanatomy > Head & Neck Lab 1 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Head & Neck Lab 1 Deck (106):
1

What is neurocranium and viscerocranium?

Neurocranium = brain case
Viscerocranium = bones of lower face

2

Where is the neurocranium thin (i.e. prone to fracture)?

Sites covered by muscles, pneumatized, perforated, sutures not yet fully fused

3

What are signs of fracture of the base of the skull?

subconjunctival hemorrhage, bleeding into nose or mouth, CSF leakage into nose, bleading or CSF leakage from ear

4

What are the three parts of the frontal bone?

Squamous part (forehead), nasal part (root of nose), orbital part (roofs of orbits)

5

What are the three parts of the occipital bone?

basilar part (anterior to foramen magnum), lateral part (lateral to foramen magnum), squamous part (posterior part)

6

What is the function of the mastoid process?

attachment point of several muscles, SCM; air cells connected to middle ear (by antrum), provides a route for infection from the middle ear (mastoiditis)

7

What is the function of the styloid process?

attachment for several muscles associated with the tongue and larynx

8

The mastoid process and styloid process are features of the ___ part of the ___ bone

petrous part of the temporal bone

9

True or False: The tympanic cavity is part of the petrous part of the temporal bone

True

10

What other essential components of the organs are hearing and vestibular system are within the interior portion of the petrous part of the temporal bone?

cochlea, semicircular canals, utricle, saccule

11

What surrounds the external acoustic meatus?

Tympanic part of temporal bone

12

What are two features of the squamous part of the temporal bone?

zygomatic process, mandibular fossa

13

What does the sella turcica include?

tuberculum sellae, hypophysial fossa and dorsum sellae

14

Where does the pituitary gland reside?

within the hypophysial fossa

15

What part of what bone includes pterygoid process (medial & lateral plates)?

Greater wing of sphenoid

16

WHich conchae is visible through the anterior nasal aperture?

middle nasal conchae

17

Coronal suture between

frontal and parietal bones

18

sagittal suture between, from ___ to ___

parietal bones; bregma to lambda

19

lambdoid suture between

occipital bone and parietal bones

20

squamous suture between, from ___ to ___

parietal bone and temporal bone, from asterion to pteroid

21

What is the pterion?

between parietal bone and greater wing of sphenoid, area around short suture

22

What are two plates of the palatine bones?

perpendicular plate and horizontal plate

23

What two processes comprise the zygomatic bone?

temporal process and frontal process

24

What bones comprise the hard palate?

palatine process of maxilla, palatine bones

25

True or False: The mandible is part of the cranium.

False

26

What muscle attaches at the ramus of the mandible?

masseter

27

What muscle attaches at the coronoid process?

temporalis and masseter muscles

28

What are the boundaries of the anterior cranial fossa and what part of the brain is located there?

cribiform plate of ethmoid
orbital part of frontal bone
lesser wing of sphenoid
frontal lobes

29

What are the boundaries of the middle cranial fossa and what part of the brain is located there?

greater wing and body of sphenoid
petrous and squamous parts of temporal bone
temporal lobes

30

What are the boundaries of the posterior cranial fossa and what part of the brain is located there?

petrous part of temporal bones
occipital bone
cerebellum & brainstem

31

What is contained in the pterygopalatine fossa?

components of maxillary nerve and artery

32

What passes through the supraorbital foramen?

supraorbital nerve - cutaneous sensory branch of V1

33

What passes through the infraorbital foramen?

infraorbital nerve - cutaneous sensory branch of V2

34

What passes through the mental foramen?

mental nerve - cutaneous sensory branch of V3

35

What passes through the cribiform foramina?

olfactory nerves from nasal cavity to olfactory bulb

36

What passes through the optic canal to orbital cavity?

optic nerve, opthalmic artery

37

What passes through the superior orbital fissure to orbital cavity?

III, IV, VI, V1

38

What passes through the foramen rotundum

V2

39

What passes through the foramen ovale?

V3

40

What passes through the foramen spinosum?

middle meningeal artery, branch of maxillary artery

41

What passes through the carotid canal?

internal carotid artery
sympathetic nerves

42

What passes through the internal acoustic meatus?

facial nerve (exits through stylomastoid foramen)
CN VIII from inner ear

43

What passes through the jugular foramen?

IX, X, XI, internal jugular vein

44

What passes through the foramen magnum?

spinal cord, vertebral arteries, spinal roots of XI

45

What passes through the hypoglossal canal?

XII

46

All of the muscles of facial expression are innervated by

branches of CN VII

47

What are the muscles of the auricle?

auricularis anterior, auricularis superior, auricularis posterior

48

What is the action of orbicularis oculi? What are its two parts?

palpebral and orbital parts - tightly closes eyelids

49

What are three muscles of the nose?

procerus, nasalis, depressor septi nasi

50

What is the action of orbicularis oris?

closes the mouth

51

What are the muscles of the upper lip? WHat are their actions?

elevate upper lip and/or angle of mouth
levator labii superioris alaeque nasi
levator labii superiorir
zygomaticus minor
zygomaticus major
levator anguli oris

52

What are the muscles of the lower lip? What are their actions?

Depress lower lip and/or angle of mouth
mentalis
depressor labii inferioris
depressor anguli oris

53

What is the action of the buccinator?

compress cheek against molar teeth and gums

54

What is the "danger zone"?

Loose CT layer of scalp - ease by which infectious agents could spread through to it valveless emissary veins that drain into the intracranial venous system

55

What are the components of the SCALP?

Skin
Connective tissue - richly vascular
Aponeurosis epicranialis - part of epicranius muscle
Loose CT
Pericranium - periosteum of cranium

56

What bone forms the roof of the nasal cavity?

cribiform plate of ethmoid

57

What two bones form the bony nasal septum?

ethmoid and vomer

58

What are the boundaries of the nasal cavity?

crifiborm plate (superior)
nasal septum (medial)
hard palate (inferior)
conchae (lateral)

59

What do nasal conchae do?

direct air inhaled through the nose to flow over a large surface of nasal mucosa to entrap particles and for climate-control

60

What is the function of nasal meatus?

communciation with one or more sinuses, allowing drainage for mucous but also providing potential routes for infection

61

What air cells open in the superior nasal meatus?

ethmoidal air cells

62

What sinuses open in middle nasal meatus?

paranasal sinuses

63

What opening is included in the inferior nasal meatus?

nasolacrimal duct (drainage of tears from the surface of the eye)

64

What is the name for the posterior nasal aperture?

choana

65

What type of cells line the respiratory part of the nasal cavity?

psuedostratified columnar

66

What type of cells lines the olfactory part of the nasal cavity?

olfactory (sensory) epithelium

67

What types of cells line the sinuses? What do they produce?

pseudostratified columnar
mucous

68

What may cause sinusitis?

blockage of drainage into nasal cavities or sinus infection

69

Where do the frontal sinuses open?

middle nasal meatus

70

Where do the maxillary sinuses open?

middle nasal meatus

71

Where do the sphenoidal sinuses open?

sphenoethmoidal recess

72

Where do ethmoidal air cells open?

middle & superior nasal meatus

73

What tonsil is contained in the vault of pharynx?

pharyngeal tonsil

74

The auditory tube is usually open/closed

closed

75

How can one open the auditory tube? What happens when it opens?

muscles associated with the torus tubarius
equalization of pressure of middle ear
drain mucous from middle ear
can be a route for infection of middle ear (nearby tubal tonsil)

76

What muscles are contained in the torus tubarius that help open the auditory tube?

salpingopharngeus muscle
levator veli palatini muscle

77

Where is the most common site for nasopharyngeal carcinoma?

pharyngeal recess

78

What is the function of the external ear?

collection & transmission of sound waves

79

What are the three components of the external ear?

auricle (pinna), external acoustic meatus, tympanic membrane

80

What is the tympanic membrane?

middle ear; air filled space in petrous part of temporal bone

81

Where is the bony external acoustic meatus?

tympanic part of temporal bone

82

What are the three ossicles?

stapes, incus, malleus

83

What is the function of the ossicles?

sound waves transduced into mechanical movements of ossicles

84

What are the muscles of auditory ossicles?

tensor tympani
stapedius

85

What is the function of tensor tympani?

applies tension to tympanic membrane via insertion on malleus; dampens sensation of head-generating noise, e.g. chewing, swallowing, etc

86

What is the innervation of tensor tympani?

V3

87

What is the function of stapedius?

dampens vibrations via insertion on stapes; thought to be protective against loud external noise

88

What is the innervation of stapedius?

VII

89

What is the function of the inner ear?

conversion of fluid waves to neural activity

90

Where is the bony labyrinth?

petrous part of temporal bone

91

What is the membranous labyrinth?

tubes and chambers containing endolymph

92

the space between the bone and membranous labyrinth is filled with

perilymph

93

What are the components of the bony labyrinth?

vestibule (contains utricle & saccule)
semicircular canals (contain semicircular ducts)
cochlea (contains cochlear labyrinth)

94

What are the components of the membranous labyrinth?

vestibular labyrinth (otolithic organs: utricle and saccule)
semicircular ducts
cochlear labyrinth (cochlear duct)

95

What does the utricle detect?

linear accelerations and head tilts in the horizontal plane

96

What does the saccule detect?

linear accelerations and head tilts in the vertical pain

97

What does the cochlear labyrinth (cochlear duct) detect?

organ of hearing; detects fluid waves produced by action of the stapes on the oval window

98

What is the action of the superior rectus muscle?

elevates and adducts eyeball

99

What is the action of the inferior rectus muscle?

depresses and adducts eyeball

100

What is the action of the medial rectus muscle?

adducts eyeball

101

What is the action of the lateral rectus muscle?

abducts eyeball

102

What is the action of the inferior oblique muscle?

elevates and abducts eyeball

103

What is the action of the superior oblique muscle?

depresses and abducts eyeball

104

What is the function of the cornea? Is it vascularized?

refraction (projection of light on retina)
avascular

105

What makes up the fibrous layer of the eyeball (corneosclera)?

cornea (anterior)
sclera (posterior)

106

What makes up the middle/muscular layer of the eyeball (uvea)?

choroid, ciliary body, iris