Head & Spinal Trauma Flashcards Preview

Food Animal Medicine & Surgery > Head & Spinal Trauma > Flashcards

Flashcards in Head & Spinal Trauma Deck (30):
1

Head trauma

Put them on anti-bacterials

2

Spinal lymphoma can be diagnosed how?

Can diagnose based on CSF tap, also would have lymphadenopathy (may see on pelvic exam)

3

Most common brain disease in the neonatal ruminant

Bacterial meninoencepalomyelitis

4

Bacterial meninoencepalomyelitis - presentation

diffuse central neurologic signs(includes brain & spinal cord); often accompanied by fever and evidence of septicemia

5

Bacterial meninoencepalomyelitis - diagnosis

Physical findings, ‘meningial signs – hyperesthesia’, suppurative CSF

6

Bacterial meninoencepalomyelitis - differentials

hydrocephalus, cerebellar hypoplasia(BVD), birth trauma, cerebral anoxia
Less likely: Vitamin A deficiency, other hereditary/congenital brain diseases

7

Bacterial meninoencepalomyelitis - treatment

Often hopeless unless treated very early

8

Rabies - presentation

Extremely variable but often ascending flaccid paralysis & anesthesia with either normal or abnormal behavior

9

Rabies - diagnosis

Course of illness, usually 2 – 7 days; typical signs, especially if aggressive, mandibular or pharyngeal paresis, CSF non-suppurative

10

Rabies - differentials
Abnormal behaviour
Paresis and CR. N. deficits
Paresis only

Abnormal behavior : lead poisoning, polio, TME, metabolic disease
Paresis and CR. N. deficits: Listeriosis, brain abscess, other encephalidites
Paresis only: spinal trauma, abscess, lymphoma

11

Thrombotic Meningoencephalitis - Histophilus (Hemophilus )somnus - presentation & diagnosis

Presentation: Often sudden death or comatose; standing animal, febrile, stiff
Diagnosis: sudden coma/semi-coma, retinal hemorrhages, suppurative CSF; multi-focal hemorrhagic brain/s.c infarcts on necropsy

12

Thrombotic Meningoencephalitis - Histophilus (Hemophilus )somnus - differentials, treatment & prognosis

Differential Diagnosis: Lead poisoning , polioencephalomalacia, Brain abscess, Listeriosis, rabies, head trauma
Treatment & Prognosis: early treatment with antibiotics while animal still standing often successful; very grave for downer animals

13

Listeriosis - presentation

in early stages, often only unilateral vestibular or facial paresis with mild to moderate depression

14

Listeriosis - presentation small ruminant

often rapid progression to severe depression or semi-coma & recumbency with asymmetric cranial n deficits

15

Listeriosis - diagnosis

History of spoiled silage in diet, unilateral Cr. N. deficits, 7- 14 day course of illness(cattle), (2-3 days sheep), non-suppurative CSF

16

Listeriosis - treatment

aggressive antibiotic and supportive treatment

17

Listeriosis - prognosis

guarded to good depending upon severity of signs (poorer for small ruminants)

18

Polioencephalomalacia - presentation

blindness, wandering, head elevation, head pressing; may progress to recumbency

19

Polioencephalomalacia - diagnosis

Dietary history, physical condition, bilateral cortical blindness, symmetrical ataxia/paresis, normal CSF, response to treatment (standing animals)

20

Polioencephalomalacia - differentials

Lead or salt poisoning, brain abscess, TME, (listeriosis in small ruminants)

21

Polioencephalomalacia - treatment & prognosis

Treatment: thiamine
Prognosis: often excellent in cattle; guarded in any downer animal

22

Diseases of the Peripheral Nervous System - name 8

Traumatic nerve injuries
Otitis media/interna
Spastic paresis
Spastic syndrome
Tetanus
Botulism
Organophosphate/TOCP poisoning
Lymphoma, Neurofibromatosis

23

Distal Radial
Paralysis

ans

24

Brachial Plexus Paralysis (high radial nerve injury posture)

Elongation of the triceps

25

Sciatic paralysis

Very prone to this, often at the level of the sacrum, compression neuropathy common cause. Can recover from them but nursing care is important
Typical posutre
May have peroneal nerve involvement
Will luxate their fetlot with tibial nerve paresis
Weakness in the extensors of the digit

26

Tibeal nerve paralysis

Causes a dropped hock & uniquely a forward luxation of the fetlock which we usually associated with a peroneal problem.

27

Obturator paresis

OFten due to getting up after calving

28

Sciatic/Oburator
Paralysis

Common, splayed legs
Due to pressure of calf on the pelvis.

29

Spastic Paresis (Elso Heel)

Limbs swining off the ground, spastic extsnsion

30

Spastic Syndrome

ans