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Flashcards in Head and Neck Deck (24):
1

What is the most common underlying pathology in head and neck cancers?

Squamous cell carcinoma

2

What are the 2 key risk factors for developing head and neck cancers?

Smoking
Alcohol

3

Which head and neck cancers have an associated with Epstein-Barr virus?

Nasopharyngeal cancer

4

What is the Centor criteria?

A tool for helping to decide whether to give antibiotics for tonsillitis based on likelihood of the episode being bacterial:
- Tonsillar exudates
- Tender cervical lymphadenopathy
- History of fever
- Absence of cough

5

If antibiotics are deemed to be required in tonsillitis, which is an appropriate to prescribe?

Penicillin V (phenoxymethylpenicillin)

6

What are the complications of a tonsillectomy?

Bleeding
Infection

7

Which is the most common bacterial cause of tonsillitis?

Group A beta-haemolytic strep i.e. Strep pyogenes

8

What is quinsy?

Peritonsillar abscess

9

What is trismus?

Spasm of the muscles of the jaw, causing the mouth to be tightly closed. Seen in peritonsillar abscess.

10

How might a patient with quinsy present?

Sore throat
Uvular deviation
Trismus
Dysphagia
Muffled 'hot potato' voice

11

What is the treatment for quinsy?

Drain the abscess using needle aspiration
IV antibiotics
± Steroids

12

What are the 3 salivary glands to be aware of?

Parotid gland
Submandibular gland
Sublingual gland

13

Where are 80% of salivary gland tumours located?

Parotid gland

14

What is the most common type of thyroid cancer?

Papillary carcinoma

15

Psammoma bodies and 'orphan Annie' nuclei are typical of which pathology?

Papillary carcinoma of the thyroid

16

Which type of thyroid cancer is more likely to spread to the lymphatic system: Papillary carcinoma or follicular carcinoma?

Papillary carcinoma

Follicular carcinoma tends to travel in the bloodstream

17

Which serum blood marker may be elevated in medullary thyroid carcinoma?

Calcitonin

18

List some features of a pharyngeal pouch

Difficulty swallowing
Halitosis
Aspiration - might have a cough
Regurgitation
Neck swelling - gurgles on palpation

19

What is the most common type of salivary gland tumour?

Benign pleomorphic parotid adenoma

20

What is a parotid 'mixed' tumour?

Another name for benign geomorphic adenoma

21

List 4 types of benign parotid tumours

Benign pleomorphic adenoma
Warthin tumor (papillary cystadenoma lymphoma or adenolymphoma)
Monomorphic adenoma
Haemangioma

22

What is the treatment for benign pleomorphic adenoma?

Superficial parotidectomy

23

What is the treatment for Bell's Palsy?

Prednisolone for 10 days, should be started within 72 hours of onset of symptoms

24

Calcitonin can be used to measure progression of which type of cancer?

Medullary thyroid cancer