Head and Neck Anatomy Week 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Head and Neck Anatomy Week 2 Deck (129):
1

What is the meatus?

The space that lies underneath the projecting concha

2

What opens into the spheno-ethmoid recess?

Sphenoid sinus

3

What opens into the superior meatus?

Posterior ethmoid air cells

4

What opens into the middle meatus?

Maxillary sinus, frontal sinus, anterior ethmoidal air cells and middle ethmoidal air cells

5

What opens into the inferior meatus?

Nasolacrimal duct

6

What is the innervation of the frontal sinus?

V1

7

What is the innervation of the maxillary sinus?

V2

8

What is the innervation of the ethmoidal sinus?

V1

9

What is the innervation of the sphenoidal sinus?

V1 & 2

10

Where do the pterygoid muscles attach?

Lateral pterygoid plate

11

What is the innervation of the muscles of the tongue?

Hypoglossal nerve (except the palatoglossus)

12

What is the vestibular fold?

False vocal cord

13

What is the vocal fold?

True vocal cord

14

What is the innervation of the muscles that are attached to the vocal cords?

The recurrent laryngeal nerve (except for the cricothyroid muscle - superior laryngeal nerve)

15

What is the innervation of the pharynx?

IX - Stylopharyngeus
X - Innervates the rest

16

With which bone do the nasal bones articulate superiorly?

Frontal bone

17

What bones form the roof of the nose?

Nasal, frontal, ethmoid and the body of the sphenoid

18

What bones form the nasal septum?

Vomer and perpendicular plate of the ethmoid

19

What structure (in addition to the bones) completes the nasal septum?

Septal cartilage

20

Which nerve passes through the cribiform plate?

Olfactory

21

What attaches to the Crista gali?

Falx cerebri - fold of the dura mater

22

What type of epithelium forms the respiratory mucosa which lines the majority of the nasal cavity?

Stratified squamous epithelium

23

What type of mucosa lines the roof of the nasal cavity?

Olfactory mucosa

24

What is the name of the space above the superior concha?

Sphenoethmoidal

25

What bone are the superior and middle conchae parts of?

Ethmoid

26

What arteries supply the nose?

Opthalmic (branch of the ICA) and branches of the ECA

27

What is the venous drainage of the nose?

Drainage is via a venous plexus

28

What are the paranasal air sinuses?

Holes in the skull that contain air

29

What are the functions of the paranasal air sinuses?

Reservoir of warm air, lighten skull, vocal resonance, immune barrier and producing mucus

30

What opens into the spheno-ethmoid recess?

Sphenoid sinus

31

What opens into the superior meatus?

Posterior ethmoid air cells

32

What opens into the middle meatus?

Maxillary sinus, frontal sinus, anterior ethmoidal air cells and middle ethmoidal air cells

33

What opens into the inferior meatus?

Nasolacrimal duct

34

Which air sinus has a floor which is often indented by tooth sockets?

Maxillary

35

What is the innervation of the frontal air sinus?

CrN V1

36

What is the innervation of the maxillary air sinus?

CrN V2

37

What is the innervation of the sphenoid air sinus?

CrN V1 & 2

38

What is the innervation of the ethmoidal air cells?

CrN V1

39

What is the name given to the lymphoid tissue which lies between the roof and the posterior wall of the nasopharynx?

Adenoids/nasopharyngeal tonsil

40

Which bone forms the roof of the nasopharynx?

Sphenoid

41

Which tube connects the nasopharynx and the middle ear?

Eustachian tube

42

What muscle lies under the Eustachian tube?

Salpingopharyngeus

43

How many deciduous teeth are there ?

Total -20
Incisor - 8
Canines - 4
Molars - 8

44

How many permanent teeth are there?

Total - 28
Incisor - 8
Canines - 4
Premolars - 8
Molars - 12 (4 wisdom teeth)

45

What type of joint is the temporomandibular joint TMJ)?

Synovial hinge joint

46

What articular processes form the TMJ?

Mandibular fossa of the temporal bone and condyloid process of the mandible

47

What movements of the mandible occur at the TMJ?

Elevation, depression, protusion, retraction and side to side movements

48

Name the muscles of mastication?

Temporalis, masseter, medial pterygoid and lateral pterygoid

49

What are the bony attachments of the temporalis muscle?

Temporal fossa and coronoid process of the mandible

50

What is the action of the anterior fibres of the temporalis muscle?

Close the jaw

51

What is the action of the posterior fibres of the temporalis muscle?

Retract the mandible

52

What are the bony attachments of the masseter?

Maxilary process of the zygomatic bone and the outer surface of the ramus and coronoid process of the mandible

53

What is the action of the masseter?

Elevates the mandible - closing the mouth

54

Where does the lateral pterygoid muscle attach?

The lateral surface of the lateral pterygoid plate

55

Where does the medial pterygoid muscle attach?

The medial surface of the lateral pterygoid plate

56

Where does the lateral pterygoid muscle attach to the mandible?

It enters into the joint capsule of the TMJ to insert onto the neck of the mandible and also the articular disc of the joint

57

Where does the medial pterygoid muscle attach?

Ramus of the mandible

58

What action does contraction of the lateral pterygoids have?

They push the jaw forwards (protrusion)

59

When the lateral pterygoid muscle contracts with the medial pterygoid of the same side what action does this have?

Side to side movement

60

When the two medial pterygoid muscles what action do they cause?

Elevates the mandible - closing the mouth

61

Name the suprahyoid muscles?

Digastric, geniohyoid and mylohyoid

62

What is the function of the suprahyoid muscles?

Depressing the mandible

63

What muscles elevate the mandible?

Masseter, temporalis and medial pterygoid

64

What muscles depress the mandible?

Digastric, geniohyoid and mylohyoid

65

What muscle cause protrusion of the mandible?

Lateral pterygoid

66

What muscle causes retraction of the mandible?

Temporalis

67

What muscles cause side to side movements of the mandible?

Medial and lateral pterygoids

68

Where does the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve emerge from the cranial cavity?

Foramen ovale

69

In which fossa do the motor branches supply the muscles of mastication?

Infratemporal fossa

70

Which branch of the trigeminal nerve enters the mandibular foramen and provides sensory innervation to the mandibular area?

Inferior alveolar nerve (sensory)

71

What is the vestibule of the oral cavity?

The space between the lips/cheeks and gums/teeth

72

Which muscle lies in the lateral walls of the oral cavity and is supplied by the facial nerve?

Buccinator

73

Which muscle causes closing/pursing of the lips when it contracts?

Orbicularis oris

74

What is the posterior opening of the oral cavity called?

Oropharyngeal isthmus

75

What bones form the hard palate?

Palatine process of the maxilla and the horizontal plate of the palantine bone

76

Name the muscles of the soft palate

Tensor veli palitini, levator veli palitini, palatoglossus, palatopharyngeus and musculus uvulae

77

What is the nerve supply to the muscles of the soft palate?

Glossopharyngeal plexus
Tensor veli palatine - CrN 5 V3

78

What is the collective action of the muscles of the soft palate?

Elevation of the palate to close the pharyngeal isthmus during swallowing preventing a food bolus from entering the nasopharynx

79

What are the boundaries of the oropharynx?

Anterior: right and left palatoglossal arches
Superior: Uvula
Inferior: epiglottis

80

What are the functions of the tongue?

Taste, moving food during chewing, speech and swallowing

81

What sulcus divides the anterior 2/3 and the posterior 1/3 of the tongue?

Sulcus terminalis

82

What is the embryological significance of the sulcus terminalis?

It is where the thyroid duct grew downwards to form the structure as it is in adult life

83

What are the three types of papillae found on the tongue?

Filiform, fungiform and vallate

84

What is the collection of submucosal lymphoid tissue on the posterior 1/3 of the tongue called?

Lingual tonsil

85

What is the name of the fold of mucous membrane that fixes the tongue to the floor of the mouth?

Lingual frenulum

86

Which nerve gives general sensory innervation to the anterior 2/3 of the tongue?

Lingual division of CrN 5 V3

87

Which nerve gives general sensory innervation to the posterior 1/3 of the tongue?

Glossopharyngeal nerve (IX)

88

Which nerve carries taste sensation from the anterior 2/3 of the tongue?

Chorda tympani - branch of the facial nerve (VII)

89

Which nerve carries taste sensation from the posterior 1/3 of the tongue?

Glossopharyngeal nerve

90

What is the collective function of the intrinsic muscles of the tongue?

They alter the size and shape of the tongue

91

Name the extrinsic muscles of the tongue?

Genioglossus, hyoglossus, styloglossus and palatoglossus

92

What are the attachments of the genioglossus?

Inner surface of the mental symphysis close to the midline

93

What is the action of the genioglossus muscle?

Protrudes tongue to the opposite side

94

What is the attachment of the hyoglossus muscle?

Upper border of the hyoid bone

95

What are the actions of the hyoglossus muscle?

Depresses and retracts the tongue

96

What is the attachment of the styloglossus muscle?

Styloid process of the temporal bone

97

What are the actions of the styloglossus muscle?

Retracts and elevates the tongue

98

What is the attachment of the palatoglossus muscle?

Soft palate

99

What is the action of the palatoglossus muscle?

Elevates the posterior aspect of the tongue

100

Which nerve innervates all the muscles of the tongue except one and what is the exception?

Hypoglossal
Palatoglossus is innervated by the pharyngeal plexus

101

Name the three large paired salivary glands?

Parotid, submandibular and sublingual

102

Which nerve gives parasympathetic innervation to the parotid gland?

Glossopharyngeal nerve

103

Which nerve gives parasympathetic innervation to the submandibular gland?

Facial nerve

104

Which nerve gives parasympathetic innervation to the sublingual gland?

Facial nerve

105

Which structure is the larynx continuous with superiorly?

Pharynx

106

Which structure does the larynx continue as inferiorly?

Trachea

107

Which structure forms the 'Adam's apple' in males?

Thyroid cartilage

108

Which of the cartilages of the larynx is paired?

Aricoid cartilage

109

Which of the cartilages of the larynx is a complete ring?

Cricoid cartilage

110

What is the name of the membrane that connects the hyoid bone and the thyroid cartilage?

Thyrohyoid ligament

111

What is the name of the membrane between the thyroid and cricoid cartilage?

Cricothyroid

112

Which membrane lies inferior to the vocal cord?

Cricothyroid

113

Which structures form the laryngeal inlet?

Epiglottis, aryepiglottic folds, arytenoid cartilage and intraarytenoid folds

114

Where is the vestibule of the larynx located?

Between the laryngeal inlet and the vestibular folds

115

Where is the middle part of the larynx?

Between the vestibular folds and the true vocal cords

116

Where is the lower part of the larynx?

Between the vocal cords and the lower border of the cricoid cartilage

117

Which muscles control the movement of the vocal fold as well as controlling the diameter of the laryngeal inlet?

Intrinsic muscles of the intrinsic muscles

118

Which nerve supplies the intrinsic muscles of the larynx?

Recurrent laryngeal
Except for the cricothyroid muscle which is innervated by the superior laryngeal nerve

119

What happens if the recurrent laryngeal nerve is transected?

Paralysis of the vocal cords - resulting in a hoarse voice

120

What is the sensory nerve supply to the mucous membrane of the larynx?

Superior laryngeal nerve

121

Which bone forms the roof of the nasopharynx?

Sphenoid bone

122

What structure prevents a bolus of food/drink entering the larynx?

Epiglottis

123

What are the three layers of the pharynx?

Outer muscular: outer circular and inner longitudinal layer
Middle fibrous layer
Inner mucous membrane

124

What muscles make up the outer circular layer of the pharynx?

Superior, middle and inferior constrictors

125

Which muscles make up the inner longitudinal layer of the pharyx?

Stylopharyngeus, salpingopharyngeus and palatopharyngeus

126

Which two cranial nerves form the pharyngeal plexus?

Glossopharyngeal and vagus

127

What is the role of the longitudinal layer of muscles during swallowing?

Elevation of the larynx

128

What is Waldeyer's ring?

A collection of lymphoid tissue that protects the entrance to the oropharynx

129

What is the role of the tongue and palate muscles during swallowing?

Stops food entering the pharynx immaturely and then moves the food into the pharynx