Head and Neck: Pharyngeal Apparatus Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Head and Neck: Pharyngeal Apparatus Deck (67):
1

Where do neural crests migrate

Into pharyngeal arches

2

What makes up the pharyngeal apparatus

Pharyngeal arch, pouch and cleft and membranes

3

What does each arch contain?

Cranial Nerve
Aortic arch artery
Cartilage

4

What is the pharyngeal cleft/groove?

Invagination of the ectoderm

5

Pharyngeal pouch?

outpocketings of endoderm

6

How do flat bones of face and skull form?

Intramembranous ossification

7

What is housed in the mesenchymal core of each arch?

Neural crest cells
Paraxial mesoderm
Lateral plate mesoderm

8

1st pharyngeal arch

Mandibular arch; largest

9

What 2 prominences make up the 1st pharyngeal arch

Maxillary prominence
Mandibular prominence

10

Does the maxillary or mandibular cartilage component remain in the adult?

The maxillary cartilage regresses (palatopterygoquadrate)
Mandibular -meckel's cartilage remains

11

Meckel's cartilage derivatives in adult (mandibular prominence)

Incus
Malleus
*** bone develops by endochondral ossification (cartilage model first)

12

Perichondrium of Meckel's cartilage derivatives

Anterior ligament of malleus
Sphenomandibular ligament

13

Maxillary prominence derivatives

Maxillary bone
Zygomatic bone
Palatine bone
Squamous portions of temporal bone

**formed by intramembranous ossification

14

Mandibular prominence derivatives

by intramembranous ossification - mandible

15

Muscles derived from pharyngeal arch 1

Masticatory muscles:
Temporalis, Masseter, Medial and Lateral Pterygoids
Tensor Veli Palatini
Tensor Tympani
Ant. belly Digastric
Mylohyoid

16

Cranial nerve of Arch 1

CN V - sensory to face and motor to muscles of arch 1

17

Skeletal components derived from cartilage of Arch 2 - Reichert's cartilage

Stapes
Styloid process (endochondral ossification)
Stylohyoid ligament (perichondrium derived)
Lesser horn and upper body of hyoid

18

Muscles derived from Arch 2

All muscles of Facial Expression
Stapedius
Stylohyoid
Posterior belly of digastric

19

Cranial nerve of Arch 2

Facial Nerve CNVII

20

Innervation of Ant. Digastric

Comes from Arch 1 - so V

21

Innervation of Post. Digastric

Comes from Arch 2 - so VII

22

Skeletal component of 3rd Arch

Greater horn and lower half of body of hyoid bone

**remember lesser horn and upper half of hyoid bone body came from 2nd arch

23

Muscle component of 3rd arch

STYLOPHARYNGEUS

24

Cranial nerve of 3rd arch

CN IX -glossopharyngeal nerve

25

Skeletal component of arches 4/6

Laryngeal cartilages
*thought to come from lateral plate mesoderm

26

Muscular component of arches 4/6

soft palate

Soft palate:
Levator veli palatini
Uvulae
Palatoglossus
Palatopharyngeus

27

Muscular component of arches 4/6

Pharynx

Superior, middle and inferior constrictors
Palatopharyngeus
Salpingopharyngeus

28

Muscular component of arches 4/6

Larynx

Cricothyroid
Thyroarytenoid
Posterior crico-arytenoid
Lateral crico-arytenoid
Transverse and oblique arytenoids
Vocalis

29

Cranial nerve of Arches 4/6

Vagus Nerve CN X

30

Arch Artery 1

Maxillary artery

31

Arch Artery 2

Stapedial artery
Hyoid Artery

32

Arch Artery 3

MAJOR: Common carotid , ECA and proximal part of ICA

33

Arch Artery 4

Left -arch of aorta + l. subclavian

Right - proximal r. subclavian

34

Arch Artery 6

Ductus arteriosus
Pulmonary arteries

35

Pharyngeal Pouch

associated with endoderm

36

Pharyngeal Pouch 1

Tubotympanic recess
*epithelial lining of tympanic cavity and Eustachian tube

37

Pharyngeal Pouch 2

Epithelium of palatine tonsil

38

Pharyngeal Cleft 1

epithelial lining of External acoustic meatus

39

Pharyngeal Pouch 3

complicated by developing a dorsal and ventral region

dorsal: Inferior parathyroid gland

Ventral: Thymus (stroma)

40

Pharyngeal Pouch 4

Dorsal: Superior parathyroid gland
Ventral: Ultimobranchial body -> parafollicular cells

41

Pharyngeal membrane

Tympanic membrane

42

Tongue is derived from which primordial tissue

Endoderm

43

Anterior 2/3 of tongue comes from which pharyngeal arch

Arch 1

44

Arch 1 contributions to tongue formation

2 lateral swellings and 1 median lingual swelling

**Lateral swellings overgrow and fuse in midline to cover the median bud

45

Dividing line between anterior and posterior tongue

Terminal sulcus

46

Which arches contribute to posterior 1/3 of tongue?

Root of tongue is formed by third/fourth arches

47

Anterior 2/3 of tongue innervated by which nerve

GSA: CN V
SA (taste): CN VII

48

Posterior 1/3 of tongue innervated by which nerve(s)

GSA and SA(taste):
Arch 3- CN IX -glossopharyngeal
Arch 4 - CN X

49

All muscles of tongue receive innervation from which cranial nerve?

CN XII - hypoglossal nerve
**except palatoglossus

50

Thyroid gland is derived from which primordial tissue type

Begins as a thickening of endoderm (diverticula)

51

What connects the foramen cecum in tongue to thyroid gland

The thyroglossal duct

52

Follicular vs. Parafollicular cells of thyroid origin

Follicular cells come from endoderm (thyroid)

Parafollicular cells (parathyroid) come from ultimobranchial body off of 4th pharyngeal pouch

53

Branchial cysts/fistulas

remnants of the cervical sinus which typically regresses

**typically found on anterior border of SCM

54

Thyroglossal cyst

remnant of thyroglossal duct between tongue and thyroid gland; always midline; sinus or fistula

55

First Arch Syndrome

abnormal development of first arch;
Treacher Collins Syndrom
Robin Sequence

56

Treacher Collins Syndrome

hypoplasia of zygomatic bone; mandibular hypoplasia

57

Robin Sequence

Triad complex:
poor growth of mandible causes
high, posteriorly placed tongue
prevents palatine shelves fusion = cleft palate

58

DiGeorge Syndrome

failure of 3rd/4th pharyngeal pouch differentiation

= thymus hypoplasia
absence of parathyroid glands (calcium regulation problems)

59

Borders of the stomadeum

Upper border: Frontonasal placod
Lateral borders: 2 maxillary prominences
Caudal border: 2 mandibular prominences

60

Nasal placode

thickening of surface ectoderm; mark site of future nasal cavities

61

Nasal placode = olfactory placode undergoes what changes?

Invaginates to form nasal pit

62

What structures surround the nasal pits?

Medial and Lateral nasal prominences surround the nasal pit derived from nasal placode

63

What structure separates the lateral nasal prominence from adjacent maxillary prominence?

Nasolacrimal groove!

64

What does the nasolacrimal groove become?

Nasolacrimal duct connect medial corner of eye to inferior meatus

65

Which nasal prominences fuse in the midline?

Medial nasal prominences fuse to give rise to intermaxillary segment

66

What (3) structures does the intermaxillary segment give rise to?

Philtrum of lip
Upper jaw - four incisors = premaxilla
Primary palate

67

By what mechanism does bone develop in all of hard palate

Intramembranous ossification