Head, Face,Neck, Thorax & Abdomen Flashcards Preview

Health Assessment Exam 2 > Head, Face,Neck, Thorax & Abdomen > Flashcards

Flashcards in Head, Face,Neck, Thorax & Abdomen Deck (66):
1

When assessing someone's thyroid gland, what's the first assessment technique you should use?

Inspection

2

What is meant by the term tangential lighting?

shinning parallel to the surface

3

When palpating lymph nodes, use ______ pressure.

gental

4

Normal lymph nodes, when they are palpable, should feel ______, _______, ______, and _________.

movable
discrete
soft
non-tender

5

The conjunctiva should be ____ and the sclera should be _______.

clear
white

6

What are three normal variations you can sometimes see when inspecting the eyes of African American individuals?

gray-blue or "muddy" color
yellowish fatty deposits
small brown macule

7

What is the term for a yellowing of the sclera that indicates jaundice?

scleral icterus

8

What is the term for "pink eye"?

conjunctivitis

9

PERRL

Pupils, Equal, Round, React to Light

10

Most adults' resting pupil size is ___ to ___mm.

3 to 5

11

Anisocoria

pupils of two different sizes

12

nystagmus

a fine oscillating movement best seen around the iris

13

When would nystagmus be normal?

at an extreme lateral gaze

14

If the reflection is not in the same spot, what does that mean?

asymmetry of the light reflex indicates deviation in alignment from eye muscle weakness or paralysis

15

What instrument do you need to check for a red reflex?

opthalmascope

16

If a person has difficulty hearing whispered words, what type of hearing loss are they likely suffering from?

high frequency

17

At what stage in the assessment should a child's tympanic membranes be examined?

at the end

18

Before inserting the speculum in the ear of an infant or child less than three years, pull the pinna _________.

straight down

19

For an adult, pull the pinna _____.

up & back

20

Describe a normal TM.

pearly gray, shinny, translucent

21

When palpating the sinuses, what should the patient feel?

firm pressure but no pain

22

What are two reasons a person's sinuses might be tender to palpitation?

chronic allergies
acute infection

23

What are some conditions which might cause unequal chest expansion?

marked atelectasis, lobar pneumonia, pleural effusion, thoracic trauma (fractured ribs or pneumothorax)

24

What does the word remits mean?

palpable vibration (generated by the larynx)

25

Which part of your hands should you use when assessing for vibration?

palmar base (the ball) of the fingers
the ulnar edge of the hand

26

Why should you avoid assessing for vibration?

bone damps out sound transmission

27

If someone has lobar pneumonia, would you expect increased or decreased fremitus over that area?

increased

28

If someone has a pneumothorax, would you expect increased or decreased fremitus over that area?

decrease

29

What is the predominate percussion sound should expect to hear over the lungs field?

resonance

30

What might an area of hyperresonance indicate?

too much air

31

What might an area of dullness indicate

abnormal density in the lungs
tumor
lung cancer
pneumonia
pleural effusion
atelectasis

32

Should you use the bell or the diaphragm of you stethoscope when auscultating lung sounds?

diaphragm

33

How hard should your patent breathe during lung auscultation?

a little deeper than normal

34

What should you do if your client has a particularly hairy chest?

press harder or wet hair with a damp cloth

35

What is the name of the sound you should normally hear when auscultating peripheral lung fields?

vesicular

36

When you lower auscultating

lower

37

Where is S1 heard?

apex

38

Where is S2 heard?

base

39

What condition can displace the PMI down and/or to the left?

cardiac enlargement

40

What are the two normal heart sounds you are supposed to hear?

S1 S2

41

Why is it important to not press too firmly on the carotid arteries?

it will slow down the heart rate

42

Why is it important to assess only one carotid artery at a time?

to avoid compromising arterial blood to the brain

43

Which end piece of your stethoscope should you use when auscultating bowel sounds?

diaphragm

44

Why is it important to auscultate the abdomen before percussing or palpating it?

can increase peristalsis / create sounds that weren't there

45

What might rebound tenderness indicate?

apendicitis

46

After abdominal surgery, the best way to determine GI motility is to measure......

return of flatus & first postoperative bowel movement

47

When auscultating the lungs, the examiner should remember to...

Auscultate lung sounds directly on the client's skin w/ the diaphragm
Have the patient to breath through their mouth
Listen to one full inspiration & expiration before moving to the next site
Auscultate in a side-to-side pattern to compare
Listen to the front & backside of the patient

48

Two main challenges w/ lung auscultation

1.Lung sounds can be difficult to hear.
Best heard 1,000 - 5,000 Hz
Normal lung sounds < 500 Hz
2. The sounds we are trying to hear are often very short.

49

bronchial breath sounds

the sound air makes when flowing through a tube.
Relatively high pitch, which makes them easier to hear
The expiratory phase is long (at least as long as inspiration).
There's a tiny gap b/w inspiration and expiration.

50

Alveolar sacs

air filled sacs in the lungs

51

vesicular breath sounds

Lower frequency, which makes them harder to hear
The expiratory phase is short
There is no silent pause

52

Bronchial breath sounds are only ______ if heard over the neck.

normal
*They're not supposed to be heard anywhere else.

53

The normal chest is supposed to contain ______ _____ that transforms the sound into ______ breath sounds.

alveolar air, vesicular

54

If you hear bronchial breath sounds over the lung fields, the _____ have either _______ or _______ w/ fluid (blood, puss, or pulmonary edema).

alveoli, collapsed, filled

55

Crackles

Very important findings
discontinuous (very short) sounds
Taken together, crackers can have a long duration
Normally heard on inspiration

56

Early inspiratory

Air flowing through large central bronchus covered in secretions
Bubbling noise
Possible: Bronchitis

57

Mid Inspiratory

Inflamed, partially dilated medium sized bronchi
Possible: Bronchiectasis

58

Late Inspiratory

Small, distal airways that are partially collapsed
Possible: Fluid, pulmonary fibrosis, pulmonary hemorrhage, pneumonia, pulmonary edema, heart failure (left side)

59

Wheezes

high-pitche, typically expiratory, and longer
Air flows through narrow airway a suckling effect is created on the airway wall (airway flutter)
Inspiratory & expiratory or just expiratory

60

Does narrowing of the airway necessarily mean that causes wheezing?

No. Its the speed of the air.

61

Beware of the silent asthmatic

Asthmatics on the brink of respiratory failure might not wheeze
Not wheezing anymore may be a sign of the condition worsening

62

Exhaling w/ too much force during lung auscultation may cause ______.

wheezing

63

If you hear a wheezing type noise that is only on inspiration, you're probably hearing _______.

stridor

64

Stridor

the result of closing (adduction) of the vocal cords.

65

Rhonchi

Similar to wheezes
They are longer
Snoring quality to them
Often caused by thick secretions that narrow the airway
Can diffuse but often localized

66

A persistent ________ localized to a specific area can be a sign of neoplasm.

rhoncus