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Flashcards in health impacts of global environmental change Deck (47):

comment on changes in distribution of global population

-africa = biggest change and by 2100 set to triple
-2015 pop in asia = largest
-overall world population is expected to increase


who are population predictions carried out by?

carried out by national governments and international organisations


what has UN estimated about world population?

that it will be 9 billion by 2030


describe changes in skin cancer cases from 2020-2060

-set to increase as risk becomes greater
sothern usa and floriada increase
band across central europe and asia


what are the causes of ozone depletion?

caused by halogenated carbons such as CFS


when does destruction of the ozone usually occur?

late winter and early spring


what happens if the ozone becomes depleted?

then more UV rays will reach the earth which can have serious impacts upon humans


what does extended exposure to UV have?

has harmful impacts upon human health including increased prevalence to skin cancers and cataract formation


when was the hole in the ozone discovered?

in 1985 the hole in the ozone was discovered over the antarctic continent


what is the Montreal protocol

banning CFCs responsible for


where do cateracts usually occur? (distribution)

middle east
some south american countries


what is skin cancer caused by?

most skin cancers are caused by long term exposure to the sun or short periods of intense sun exposure and burning


how much has malignant melanoma increased by?

since 1970's incidence rates have increased 5x


what are the risk factors to skin cancer?

-exposure to UV radiation
-outdoor workers e.g farmers builders
-being fair skinned
-age and family history
-if experienced radiotherapy


where has the highest rates of skin cancer in UK?

south west and south east


why does the south of UK have the highest skin cancer cases?

-higher temps
-increased UV radiation
-greater income


where has the highest rates of skin cancer in world?



why do australia have the highest skin cancer rates?

-light skinned population
-tropical latitude
-high levels of UV radiation
-cultural emphasis on outdoor activities


australia skin cancer facts

2/3s of australians will be diagnosed by age 70
2000 die of skin cancer each year
4x more likely to develop it
cost australian healthcare system 512.3 million


what are cataracts?

form of eye damage which cause a loss of transparency in the lens leading to cloudiness of vision and sometimes blindness


what are cataracts caused by?

can be caused naturally by ageing or because of diabetes also smoke from burning fuelwood and cigarettes


how does ozone depletion cause cataracts?

increased ozone depletion means anyone who spends a lot of time outdoors is at risk of eye problems from UV radiation


what are the risk factors for cataracts?

geographical location- UV levels greater in tropical areas
Altitude- UV levels higher at greater altitude
time of day - UV levels greater at 10-2
setting - UV levels greater in open spaces


how can you prevent UV risk?

wearing good quality sun glasses blocks harmful UV radiation


what are the treatments for cataracts

only type of effective treatment is surgery to remove the cloudy lens and replace it


who is mostly affected by cataracts?

those living in rural areas in the developing world ass they are less able to afford treatment and prevention


what are the health impacts climate change has?

-increases in frequency and severity of storms
-unhealthy air and pollutants
-changes in temps could exacerbate the spread of disease
-greater increases in infectious diseases following floods and storms


how may global warming bring some benefits?

fewer winter deaths in temperate climates
increased food production in certain areas


what are the health affects associated with global warming?

WHO estimate that between 2030 and 2050 there will be approximately 250,000 additonal deaths per yesr from malnutrition, malaria, diarrhoea and heat stress


certain groups more vulnerable to others to climate change, who are these?

poorer people more vulnerable
vulnerability depends on population density, level of economic development, food availability and availability of healthcare


what is thermal stress (heatwaves, cold spells)

climate change will cause increased heat-related mortality and morbidity but decreased cold related mortality in temperate countries


what are the main risks posed by a heat wave?

heat exhaustion
heat stroke


heat waves can lead to other health risks...

growth of blue green algea in water courses
odour, dust and vermin infestation
water shortages


where do heat waves have a bigger health impact?

much bigger health impact in cities than in suburban and rural areas


cold spells

temperate countries e.g UK
death rates can be 25% higher in winter
climate change is set to bring milder winters in temperate regions leading to less winter deaths


changing distribution of vector borne diseases

any change in temperature and precipitation from climate change will alter the geographical distribution of optimal conditions for vectors


what are 3 examples of vector borne diseases?

-malaria and dengue
-lyme disease
-zika virus


malria and dengue

diseases will spread in warmer world reaching further geographical areas. areas already with malaria will be hit most


lyme disease

-most common vector borne disease in temperate climates
-transmitted by the bite of infected deer ticks
-associated with warmer weather and increased humidity


zika virus

caused by bite of infected mosquito
mainly found in africa
pregnant women who contract are at risk of microcephally


what are the direct impacts of climate change on agricultural productivity

-in mid and high latitudes crop yield expected to increase
-crops grown in lower latitudes could become more viable
-large gains in russia due to longer pplanting season and more favourable conditions


what do rising temps cause to agricultural productivity?

increase evaporation rates causing salinisation of soils and soils dry out making them vulnerable to desertification reducing yields


what are the indirect impacts of climate change on agriculture?

pests and insects - more and more widespread
sea level rises- may lead to flooding of crops in low lying areas
changes in water availability


the impacts of climate change on food production

will have uncertain and varying consequences for human health and nutrition


how will climate change affect developed regions nutritional standards

-increased prices may lower nutritional quality of food which may exacerbate obesity


how will climate change affect developing regions nutritional standards

nations experiencing rapid economic growth may shoft to more western diets


how will climate change affect the least developed regions nutritional standards

-most vulnerable
-climate change has given a combination of heavy rainfall and droughts which has led to crop failure