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Flashcards in Health Issues Deck (80):
1

What is health?

Your physical, mental and social well-being, and the absence of disease.

2

How can you measure health?

By using health indicators (e.g healthy life expectancy).

3

What is the global pattern of healthy life expectancy (HLE)?

HLE is highest in wealthier countries and lowest in poorer countries.

4

What does morbidity mean?

Illness.

5

What are the 2 morbidity indicators?

Prevalence and incidence.

6

What is prevalence?

The total number of cases in a population at a particular time.

7

What is incidence?

The number of new cases in a population during a particular time period.

8

What is the global pattern of infectious diseases?

Infectious diseases are highest in poorer countries and lowest in wealthier countries. For example - Tuberculosis is common in poorer countries such as those in sub-Saharan Africa, and less common in wealthier countries such as the UK and USA.

9

Why is the morbidity high for infectious diseases in poorer countries?

Malnutrition (due to poor food availability and periodic famines) reduces the body's ability to fight disease. Lack of clean water and sanitation increases the spread of infectious diseases. Overcrowded conditions in urban areas increases the spread of infectious diseases. Poor access to health care means people can't access drugs to treat and prevent infectious diseases. Limited health education means people aren't well informed about how they can avoid infectious diseases. Disease vectors are more common in poorer countries, for example the mosquitos that spread malaria are more common in tropical regions of Africa.

10

What is the global pattern of non-communicable diseases?

Non-comminicable diseases are highest in wealthier countries and lowest in poorer countries. For example - there's a high breast cancer morbidity in wealthier countries such as the UK and USA, and low breast cancer morbidity in poorer countries in Africa.

11

Why is the morbidity high for non-communicable diseases in richer countries?

There's a higher proportion of older people (due to a higher life expectancy) meaning that more people are likely to suffer from diseases associated with old age. Unhealthy lifestyles lead to an increased risk if you're overweight or obese, eat unhealthy food and don't do enough exercise, these factors are more common in wealthier countries.

12

What is mortality?

Death.

13

What is the mortality rate?

How many people die in a population over a period of time.

14

What is the global pattern of mortality?

Wealthier countries have a high mortality rate for non-communicable diseases, but only a low percentage of cases result in death. The mortality rate from non-communicable diseases is lower in poorer areas, but the percentage of cases resulting in death is much higher.

15

What is the link between morbidity and mortality?

Morbidity causes mortality.

16

Why is the risk of dying from a disease higher in poorer countries?

Malnutrition reduces the body's ability to fight disease. Poor access to health care means people can't access the drugs they need to treat the disease.

17

Why are infectious diseases global issues?

Because they can spread to other countries and can even spread around the world, for example HIV/AIDS now affects all countries.

18

What do the World Health Organisation (WHO) do?

They work with most governments in most countries to help eradicate and prevent disease. For example, they run a programme of vaccinations (paid for by richer countries) to eradicate polio (an infectious disease mainly found in poorer countries).

19

What is the health care approach like in poorer countries?

In poorer countries the national income is low, so spending on healthcare tends to be low too. A large proportion of the money that's available is spent on treating large numbers of patients with diseases, leaving little money available for preventative healthcare and education. Preventing diseases is often a more effective way to improve health than just treating disease. Some poorer countries rely heavily on foreign aid to help with healthcare (e.g. donated medicines and medical equipment). Foreign aid can help poorer countries improve health care services in the short-term but longer-term solutions are needed so countries can become self reliant.

20

How have poorer countries improved healthcare for remote populations?

They can train local people in basic health care and employ them to provide basic health care services to their local communities. Services include first aid, treating common diseases, providing medicines and vaccination, pregnancy support and midwifery, and health education.

21

What are the advantages of training local health care workers?

It's a relatively inexpensive way of improving healthcare and health education in rural areas. It creates jobs for local people. It increases self-reliance of communities. Local basic health care workers are unlikely to leave (doctors often migrate to wealthier countries where the pay is better).

22

What are the disadvantages of training local health care workers?

Basic health care workers can't replace fully trained medical professionals. So long-term solutions must improve access to proper medical facilities and fully trained staff.

23

What is the problem with health in Ethiopia?

It's one of the poorest countries in the world. There's widespread poor health, e.g. the life expectancy is only 52 years old and infant mortality is at 8%. People have poor nutrition, poor sanitation and unclean water. Infectious diseases are very common. There's a shortage of medical professionals and health facilities, especially in remote rural areas - in some areas there are only 3 doctors to every 100,000 people.

24

What solutions are there to the health problem in Ethiopia?

Ethiopia's government receives foreign aid to improve health, sanitation and access to clean water. Some of the money's spent on preventative health care such as vaccinations and contraceptives. Foreign aid funds the Health Extension Programme, which trains local healthcare workers in rural areas. Workers deliver basic health care and health education, but more heal workers are still needed by many communities. Money is being used to prevent disease. Since 2005, millions of insecticide treated bed nets have been given out - a cost effective way of preventing the spread of malaria by mosquitos. In one year, the number of new malaria cases fell by 20%.

25

Why is health bad in wealthier countries?

Ageing populations mean there is a higher proportion of older people due to a high life expectancy and a low birth rate, so more people suffer from age related illnesses. Lifestyles choices also affect health. Choosing to eat healthily, exercise, not smoke and reduce alcohol consumption can improve your health. The key barrier to improving health in richer countries is people ignoring advice of lifestyle changes that would reduce the chance of developing diseases.

26

What is the health care approach like in wealthier countries?

A great deal of money is spent on preventative health care, such as providing vaccinations against diseases, health awareness campaigns to promote good lifestyle choices, providing support services to help people improve their health (e.g. quitting smoking) and early diagnosis such as screening.

27

What is the problem with cervical cancer in England?

Nearly 3000 women are diagnosed with cervical cancer each year in England, which can cause death if left untreated. 99% of all cervical cancers are caused by a virus called HPV (human papillomavirus).

28

What are the solutions to cervical cancer in England?

Some forms of cervical cancer are preventable by stopping infection with HPV. A HPV vaccine is now offered to all girls aged 12-13 in England. Cervical screening is offered to all women over 25 in England. Unusual cells can be detected early, allowing treatment to prevent cancer. Death rates from cervical cancer have decreased by nearly 70% since screening began.

29

How does disease affect health?

Increases poor health in the population and in some cases permanent disability and death.

30

How does disease affect economic development?

Slow economic development due to increasing death rates (so fewer taxes go to the government), decreasing productivity (due to days lost from work) and increasing health care costs.

31

How does disease affect lifestyle?

Increased poverty (due to days lost form work and increasing health care costs), impaired learning (due to days lost from school) and a downward spiral as the poorest families are trapped in poverty.

32

What is malaria?

Malaria is an infectious disease caused by parasites.

33

How is malaria transmitted?

By mosquitos.

34

How can you treat and prevent malaria?

It can be cured with anti-malarial drugs, and can be prevented by using bed nets and insecticides.

35

What is the distribution of malaria cases and why?

Most cases of malaria are found in tropical areas, e.g. sub-Saharan Africa. In 2006 there were neatly 250 million global cases of malaria, of which 86% occurred in the poorest countries in Africa. The reason for this is because the mosquitos that carry malaria can only survive in warm countries, limited health education so people are not informed about have to avoid malaria and poor health care so people that have malaria are less likely to be treated.

36

What is the distribution of deaths caused by malaria and why?

In 2006, 91% of global deaths from malaria were in sub-Saharan Africa. This is because there are a high number of cases, poor health care (anti-malarial drugs aren't affordable or available) and poor health and nutrition which reduces the body's ability to fight infections.

37

What is HIV/AIDS?

HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) is a virus that destroys the immune system. It eventually causes AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome), which causes death.

38

How is HIV/AIDS transmitted?

Sexual contact, sharing needles, blood transfusions and contaminated medical equipment.

39

How can you treat and prevent HIV/AIDS?

There's not cure for AIDS but you can slow down the development of HIV to AIDS by using antiviral drugs. HIV can be prevented by practising safe sex, screening blood donors and by using sterile medical equipment.

40

What is the distribution of HIV/AIDS cases and why?

66% of the population (and 90% of children) living with HIV/AIDS are in sub-Saharan Africa. This is because in this society people are more reluctant to get tested for HIV/AIDS, gender inequality means that in some African countries men are socially dominant which makes women less likely to insist on condom use, limited health and sex education (people aren't aware of what HIV is and aren't informed of how they can avoid it) and the limited health care means that people with HIV/AIDS are less likely to be diagnosed, so they're more likely to pass on the disease.

41

What is the distribution of deaths caused by HIV/AIDS and why?

Over 70% of global deaths from HIV/AIDS occur in sub-Saharan Africa. This is due to a high number of cases, poor health care (antiviral drugs that prolong life aren't affordable or available) and poor health nutrition and hygiene increase the risk of other infections that can be fatal because HIV destroys the immune system.

42

What is coronary heart disease?

Coronary heart disease (CHD) is a disease where the heart doesn't get enough blood. It can lead to a heart attack.

43

How can you treat and prevent coronary heart disease?

CHD has no cure but can be controlled with treatment such as aspirin or surgery. Early diagnosis and access to healthcare can increase life expectancy. The risk of CHD can be reduced by lifestyle changes such as eating healthily, exercising and not smoking.

44

What is the distribution of coronary heart disease cases and why?

CHD is non-communicable so it is more common in wealthier countries such as the UK and USA. Reasons for this are the ageing population (as your risk of developing CHD increases as you get older) and lifestyle factors (an unhealthy lifestyle and being overweight increases your risk of developing CHD). However, cases of CHD are increasing in poor and newly-industrialised countries as their wealth increases. Reasons include the increasing life expectancy, and social economic and cultural changes (people are adopting Western diets and lifestyles).

45

What is the distribution of deaths caused by coronary heart disease and why?

CHD is one of the world's biggest killers. It caused 14% of global deaths in 1997. Over 80% of deaths occur in poor and newly-industrialised countries. This is due to poor health care (treatments aren't affordable or available) and limited health education (people aren't aware of the effects of lifestyle changes). Death rates are falling in wealthier countries though, because of improvements in diagnosing people at risk of CHD, developing effective treatments and awareness campaigns to prevent the disease.

46

What is cancer?

Cancer is the uncontrollable growth and spread of abnormal cells in the body.

47

How can you treat and prevent cancer?

If detected early enough, many cancers can be cured or controlled with treatment. Many cancers are detected early through awareness of symptoms and regular screening. The risk of getting cancer can be reduced with lifestyle changes, such as eating healthily, exercising and not smoking. Some forms of cervical cancer can be prevented by having a vaccination.

48

What is the distribution of cancer cases and why?

Cancer is non-communicable so it is more common in wealthier countries. The most common types of cancer are prostate, breast and colon cancer. This is because of an ageing population and lifestyle factors. Cancer is becoming increasingly common in poor and newly-industrialised countries - especially liver, stomach and cervical cancer. This is because of increasing life expectancy and social, economic and cultural changes (adoption of a Western lifestyle).

49

What is the distribution of deaths caused by cancer and why?

Cancer is the world's second biggest killer, causing 13% of deaths in 2007. 75% of those deaths were in poor and newly-industrialised countries. This is because of poor health care and limited health education. Death rates are falling in wealthier countries though, because of improvements in diagnosis, treatment and awareness.

50

What are Trans-National corporations (TNCs)?

Companies that operate in more than one country. Some TNCs are very large, with huge budgets and powerful political influence.

51

What are the 4 ways TNCs affect global health?

How they treat employees, how they market products, how they sell products and which products they choose to research and develop.

52

How does the way that TNCs treat their employees affect global health?

TNCs influence global health by the way they treat employees; through the wages they pay, the safety standards and the healthcare they provide. For example, Namdeb diamond corporation runs a HIV/AIDS awareness program in Namibia and provides its HIV-positive employees with drug treatment.

53

How does the way that TNCs market their products affect global health?

TNCs influence global health by the way they market their products; such as tobacco, fatty foods and breast milk substitutes. For example, there are concerns that aiming fast-food advertising at children may contribute to long-term unhealthy eating choices and obesity.

54

How does the way that TNCs sell their products affect global health?

TNCs influence global health by the way they sell their products; such as tobacco, medical drugs and medical supplies and how much they charge for them. For example, many African countries have to rely on the generosity of overseas governments and pharmaceutical companies to subsidise drugs because they can't afford them.

55

How does the way that TNCs choose which products they research and develop affect global health?

TNCs influence global health by which products they choose to research and develop; such as healthy foods and medicines. For example, Kraft Foods are developing a new food that kills intestinal worms. It's aimed at rural Africa, Asia and South America, where intestinal worms are a big health problem.

56

What are Pharmaceutical companies?

Companies that research, develop, produce and distribute drugs to treat disease.

57

How do Pharmaceutical companies affect global health?

They influence global health because they can choose which drugs to develop and what prices to charge.

58

How do Pharmaceutical companies research and produce their products?

There's more money in wealthier countries so pharmaceutical countries often choose to research and produce drugs for diseases that mainly affect wealthier countries, leading to improved health in wealthier countries. Some pharmaceutical countries use the profits they make in wealthier countries to subsidise research into diseases that facet poorer countries, leading to improved health in poorer countries.

59

How do Pharmaceutical companies research and produce their products?

There's more money in wealthier countries so pharmaceutical companies often choose to research and produce drugs for diseases that mainly affect wealthier countries, leading to improved health in wealthier countries. Some pharmaceutical companies use the profits they make in wealthier countries to subsidise research into diseases that facet poorer countries, leading to improved health in poorer countries.

60

What is GlaxoSmithKline (GSK)?

GSK is one of the world's largest pharmaceutical companies.

61

How does GSK research and produce its products?

GSK produces almost 4 billion packs of medicines and health care products each year, including one-quaker of the world's vaccines. It produces products for wealthy countries and poorer countries.

62

How does GSK research and produce its products?

GSK produces almost 4 billion packs of medicines and health care products each year, including one-quaker of the world's vaccines. It produces products for wealthy countries and poorer countries.

63

How does GSK distribute and sell its products?

GSK makes a large profit from drug sales but also donates some drugs to poorer countries for free. For example, GSK's donated 750 million albendazole tablets to treat over 130 million people with elephantitis (an infectious inflammatory disease). GSK also invests a large amount of its profit in community programmes to help people in need - 3.8% of their pre-tax profits (£282 million) in 2007.

64

What is the pattern of mortality from smoking?

Almost 4 million people die each year from tobacco- related illnesses. Death rates are rising because most tobacco-related illnesses take years or decades to develop. Due to them taking a long time to develop, they're usually a health problem that affects wealthier countries (because people live long enough for the disease to develop). As poorer countries develop and life expectancy increases, tobacco-related illnesses are becoming more common

65

What treaty did the WHO develop in 2003 and why?

The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. The treaty protects public health by restricting tobacco advertising, regulating the contents of tobacco products, making sure they're packaged and labelled correctly and regulating who they're sold to. It is hoped that these measures will help to reduce the number of global smokers, reducing the number of tobacco-related illnesses worldwide.

66

Why isn't the WHO 2003 'Framework Convention on Tobacco Control' treaty globally effective?

Some countries haven't signed the WHO treaty, and so they're are concerns that some tobacco companies are targeting these countries. Companies are accused of aggressive marketing to target vulnerable populations (e.g. young people), and exploiting people's lack of knowledge about the health effects of tobacco. This could increase tobacco related illnesses in these countries.

67

What is Philip Morris International (PMI)?

PMI is the world'd largest tobacco company and owns the world's top selling brand.

68

How does PMI research and produce its products?

PMI sells a lot of tobacco products. In 2005 it sold 805 billion cigarettes world wide. But PMI does research and develop some potentially less harmful tobacco products, e.g. cigarettes that might reduce the exposure of the smoker to toxic chemical compounds. These measures could help to reduce the number of tobacco-related illnesses worldwide.

69

How does PMI distribute and sell its products?

PMI does stick to the 'Framework Convention on Tobacco Control' in the countries that have signed it. But it uses a different range of advertising and marketing strategies in countries that haven't signed up, e.g. PMI offers adult smokers free samples of cigarettes where it's legal to do so. PMI does have a 'responsible marketing policy'. It's agreed not to market products to children and to put health warnings on all marketing materials and all packaging.

70

What is the general health trend in the UK?

There is a North-South divide - people living in the South of England are healthier than those living in the North and Scotland.

71

How does income affect health patterns in the UK?

In general, wealthier people tend to be healthier because they have better access to exercise facilities and health care, and are more educated about health issues. The pattern of household income in the UK broadly matches the pattern of life expectancy - household income in the North is lower than the national average, and household income in the South is higher than the national average.

72

How does age structure affect health patterns in the UK?

Older people are more likely to suffer from age-related diseases. All regions of the UK have an ageing population, due to low birth rates and increasing life expectancy - but some areas have a higher proportion of older people than others because more retired people choose to live there e.g. rural and coastal areas like Devon.

73

How does occupation type affect health patterns in the UK?

If you do a manual job then you're up to three times more likely to suffer from poor health than if you do a non-manual job, this is because manual jobs include a higher risk of accidents and exposure to hazardous substances. More people do manual jobs in the North of England which may contribute to the higher levels of poor health. People doing non-manual jobs are more likely to suffer from stress and mental health problems.

74

How does education affect health patterns in the UK?

The better educated you are, the more likely you are to choose a healthier lifestyle, such as eating healthily, exercising regularly and not smoking. This could be because poor education means poor knowledge of how to stay healthy. In 2003, 18.8% of the working-age population in the North-East had no educational qualifications, compared to just 10.7% in the South-West. This could contribute to the difference in health between the two areas.

75

How does environment and pollution affect health patterns in the UK?

If you live in a polluted area, then you are more likely to suffer from poor health. For example, London has a high mortality rate from respiratory diseases, thought to be caused by the poor air quality in the city. In contrast, Devon and Cornwall are countryside areas with much less pollution, which may contribute to better health there.

76

How does gender influence health?

Women tend to live longer than men but they're twice as likely to have higher morbidity from chronic illnesses, and are three times as likely to suffer from migraines. Women are also less likely to take part in sports than men - some leisure facilities have introduced 'ladies only sessions to encourage participation.

77

How is health care provision affected by an ageing population?

Specialised wards are needed to care for the growing population of elderly people who have ill health. Increased screening is required for age-related diseases. There needs to be more residential care homes and carers. More mobile health services may be required to cope with the increasing elderly population, especially those in rural areas without family support. More older people in a population means more people are retired and fewer people are working - this can result in a declining tax base to pay for health and social services.

78

What is the population structure like in the South-West of England?

In 2001, 21% of the South-West's population were pension age or over (60+ for women, 65+ for men).

79

In the South-West, how does an ageing population affect the general health of an area and the provision of health care?

There are higher rates of diseases associated with old age - in 2003 the rate of breast cancer was 7% above UK average and the rate of prostate cancer was 14% above UK average. More carers and health workers are needed - in 2001, 11% of the working population of the South-West worked in the social and health care sector. More care homes are required - 14% of care homes in England are located in the South-West.

80

Why might pumping money into health care services in the South-West not be the best way to improve health?

Although it has the oldest population structure, it's still the healthiest region in the UK - which suggests that age isn't the most important factor in poor health. Inland Revenue figures show that older people have lower personal incomes than average, so it could be their low income, rather than age, that's mostly affecting their poor health. So the most effective way of improving health in the region could be to focus on reducing the number of people living on a low income. For example, the government provides people over 60 years old with a heating allowance - grants of up to £4000 to insulate homes and making heating improvements. This is especially important in the South-West because this area has the highest proportion of energy-inefficient homes in England. The heating allowance improves health in the South-West because it helps reduce illness and speeds recovery int he elderly population.