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Flashcards in Health Needs Assessment Deck (27):
1

What is involved in the planning cycle of a health service?

(health) Needs assessment --> planning/design --> implimentation --> evaluation -->

2

How do doctors improve the health of patients?

two main ways:
1. treating puts individually
2. influencing the services available to pts (dr's leadership in influencing needs assessment, planning + evaluation)

3

What is need, demand and supply?

Need - the ability to benefit from an intervention (N.b. there are other definitions)

Demand - what people ask for

Supply - what is provided

4

Give some examples of things that are:
- Needed, demanded, supplied
- Needed, demanded but not supplied
- needed, supplied but not demanded (childhood immunisation?)
- Needed but not supplied or not demanded
- Supplied, demanded but not needed
- Supplied, not needed or demanded
- demanded, not supplied or needed

??? Look at overlapping circles diagram

Antibiotics for viral illness (demanded, but not needed or supplied)

IVF

Circumcision

New cancer Rx

5

What is health needs assessment?

A systematic method for reviewing the health issues facing a population, leading to agreed priorities + resource allocation that will improve health + reduce inequalities

6

What are the different definitions of need?

Health need: need for health. Concerns need in more general terms. E.g. measured using mortality, morbidity, socio-economic measures

Health care need: need for healthcare (ore specific). ability to benefit from healthcare. Depends on the potential of prevention, treatment and care services to remedy health problems

In practice, a "health needs assessment" covers both + does a health needs assessment and health care needs assessment

7

What can a health needs assessment be carried out for?

1. A population / sub-group (e.g. Manor practice population)
2. A condition (e.g. COPD, back pain, learning disabilities)
3. An intervention (e.g. coronary angioplasty, IVF, new Ca Rx)

8

What are the different sociological (Bradshaw) perspectives/definitions on 'need'?

1. Felt need: individual perceptions of variation from normal health
2. Expressed need: individual seeks help to overcome variation in normal health (demand)
3. Normative need: professional defines intervention appropriate for the expressed need
4. Comparative need: comparison between severity, range of interventions and cost

9

What is felt need?

One of the four sociological perspectives (Bradshaw) on need

Individual perceptions of variation from normal health

10

What is expressed need?

One of the four sociological perspectives (Bradshaw) on need

individual seeks help to overcome variation in normal health (demand)

11

What is normative need?

One of the four sociological perspectives (Bradshaw) on need

professional defines intervention appropriate for the expressed need

12

What is comparative need?

One of the four sociological perspectives (Bradshaw) on need

comparison between severity, range of interventions and cost

13

What are the 3 public health approaches to health needs assessment?

1. Epidemiological
2. Comparative
3. Corporate

14

Explain the epidemiological approach to health needs assessment?

(google: assess the size of the specific problem, current services that address this problem + their effectiveness)

1. Define problem
2. Size of problem (incidence + prevalence)
3. Services available for the problem (prevention, treatment, care)
4. Evidence base (effectiveness + cost-effectiveness)
5. models of care (including quality + outcome measures)
6. existing services (unmet need, services not needed)
7. recommendations

15

What are the limitations of the epidemiological approach to health needs assessment?

- Required data may not be available
- Variable data quality
􏰀- Evidence base may be inadequate
􏰀- Does not consider felt needs / views of people affected

16

Explain the comparative approach to health needs assessment?

Compares the services received by a population (or subgroup) with others. Identify population by: Spatial or social (age, gender, class, ethnicity)

May examine: health status, service provision, utilisation, health outcomes (mortal., more., QoL, pt satisfaction)

17

What are the limitations of the comparative approach to health needs assessment?

- May not yield what the most appropriate level
e.g. of provision or utilisation should be
􏰀- Data may not be available
􏰀- Data may be of variable quality
􏰀- May be difficult to find a comparable population

18

Explain the Corporate approach to health needs assessment?

(google: assess what national/local policies exist. Integrate the perceptions of service providors.)

input from: providors, commissioners, press, opinion leaders, politicians, professionals, pts

19

What are the limitations of the corporate approach to health needs assessment?

- May be difficult to distinguish need from
demand
􏰀- Groups may have vested interests
􏰀- May be influenced by political agendas
􏰀- Dominant personalities may have undue influence

20

What is prevalence?

The total number of individuals w/ a specific medical condition either (a) at a specified time (point prevalence) or (b) over a specified period (annual, life time or one year)

21

What does the clinical commissioning group (CCG) do?

Commissions services

Reviews the services it commissions

22

What does the clinical commissioning group (CCG) do?

Commissions services

Reviews the services it commissions

23

Exam Q: Explain what is meant by the comparative approach to health needs assessment.

Compares the services received by a population (or subgroup) with others. Identify population by: Spatial or social (age, gender, class, ethnicity)

May examine: health status, service provision, utilisation, health outcomes (mortal., more., QoL, pt satisfaction)

24

Exam Q: Give three potential limitations of the epidemiological approach to health needs assessment.

- Required data may not be available
- Variable data quality
􏰀- Evidence base may be inadequate
􏰀- Does not consider felt needs of people affected

25

Give one health related example of something that you consider is demanded but not needed or supplied, clearly explaining the reasoning for your example.

E.g. antibiotics for viral illness. Patients frequently demand antibiotics for a viral cold/flu-like illness, and it is down to the practitioner to explain that this is not needed and to ensure that they aren’t supplied, in order to combat antibiotic resistance. However, in some situations this may fall into the category of demanded and supplied, but not needed.

26

Describe the corporate approach to a health needs assessment

getting the views of people involved: commissioners, providers, patients, professionals

some people give you views that you don't want: politicians, press...

27

What are the disadvantages of a corporate approach to a HNA?

-􏰀 May be difficult to distinguish need from
demand
􏰀- Groups may have vested interests
􏰀- May be influenced by political agendas / press
􏰀- Dominant personalities may have undue influence

e.g. drug companies