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Flashcards in Hearing-loss Prevention Programs And Services Deck (83):
0

Year of passage of Hearing Conservation Amendment to the OSH Act

1983

1

NIHL

Noise induced hearing loss

2

NIHL caused by occupational exposure has been a compensate occupational disease since...

The 1950s

3

NIHL has been identified as...

-One of the most common occupational diseases
-Second most self reported occupational illness or injury

4

Estimated number of workers exposed to hazardous noise levels

30 million

5

Key industries with high numbers of workers exposed to hazardous noise

1. Agriculture
2. Mining
3. Construction
4. Manufacturing and utilities
5. Transportation
6. Military

6

Noise exposure has been associated with the following:

1. Anxiety
2. Depression
3. Blood pressure
4. Heart rate changes
5. Myocardial infarction

7

Hearing loss programs are designed to do the following:

1. Prevent noise induced hearing loss
2. Reduce worker exposure to harmful noise
3. Identify progression of hearing loss so preventive measures can be taken
4. Identify temporary hearing loss before it becomes permanent
5. Comply with federal regulations or state OSHA plans

8

OSHA noise standard

CFR 1910.95

9

OSHA regulations limit work site noise exposure to....

90 dBA time weighted average (TWA) over an 8 hour shift

10

Mandatory components of OSHA Noise Standard

1. Hearing loss prevention programs
2. Hearing protection devices (HPD)
3. Engineering controls

11

Hearing loss prevention programs are mandatory in an environment where....

Daily noise level equals or exceeds 85dBA over an 8 hour time weighted average

12

Hearing conservation recommendations based on TWA in dBA

84 or below

Workers included in HCP: no
HPD utilization: voluntary
HPD selection options: free choice

13

Hearing conservation recommendations based on TWA in dBA

85-89

Workers included in HCP: yes
HPD utilization: optional
HPD selection options: free choice

14

Hearing conservation recommendations based on TWA in dBA

90-94

Workers included in HCP: yes
HPD utilization: required
HPD selection options: free choice

15

Hearing conservation recommendations based on TWA in dBA

95-99

Workers included in HCP: yes
HPD utilization: required
HPD selection options: limited choice

16

Hearing conservation recommendations based on TWA in dBA

100 or above

Workers included in HCP: yes
HPD utilization: required
HPD selection options: very limited choice

17

Rationale for and benefits of a worksite HLPP

1. Reduced worker risk for NIHL and other health conditions
2. Better labor management relations
3. Decreased likelihood on antisocial behaviors resulting from annoyance
4. Greater job satisfaction
5. Increased productivity
6. Better quality of life
7. Reduced worker fatigue and irritability resulting in improved worker efficiency and job performance
8. Reduced accident rates, illnesses and lost work time
9. Reduced risk of workers compensation claims
10. Reduced loss of trained and experienced personnel

18

Hearing loss prevention programs can benefit

1. Management
2. Employees

19

How can prevention, early detection and reducing noise hazard benefit employees?

1. Health
2. Improve workplace morale

20

How can prevention, early detection and reducing noise hazards benefit management

1. Improved employee morale
2. Greater job satisfaction
3. Improved occupational safety

21

An effective hearing loss prevention program requires the following:

1. Support, cooperation and participation of all levels of management
2. Support of workers
3. Cooperation of union leaders and/or person responsible for work site safety
4. Review of the OSHA standard
5. Review of recommendations for compliance

22

Resource for recommendations for compliance with OSHA standard

NIOSH Practical Guide to Preventing Hearing Loss

Specifically appendix A- OSHA Standard Compliance Checklist

23

Management roles related to Hearing Loss Prevention Programs

1. Developing and implementing a HLPP policy
2. Identifying program personnel and defining responsibilities
3. Providing personnel, space, supplies and funding for the program
4. Providing all elements of program free of charge
5. Ensuring workers exposed are compliant with program
6. Make a good faith effort to eliminate or reduce sources of noise
7. Posting appropriate warning signs and ear protection requirements at entrances to areas with noise levels exceeding 85dBA
8. Conducting and reviewing annual program evaluations

24

Component of HLPP policy that must be implemented

Disciplinary action for noncompliance

25

Program personnel needed for HLPP

1. Qualified physician, otolaryngologist or audiologist to supervise program
2. Program coordinator and other personnel responsible for program components

26

Responsibilities of hearing loss prevention coordinator

1. Acquiring certification in hearing conservation
2. Determining workers who qualify for program
3. Taking a brief health and aural history on each worker
4. Performing otoscopic exam and audio metric testing
5. Coordinating testing schedule and follow-up procedure
6. Keeping accurate, clear and complete testing and counseling records
7. Selecting, fitting and monitoring the wearing of appropriate hearing protection devices
8. Acting as liaison between workers and other members of the team
9. Educating and training workers on how to protect themselves from hearing loss
10. Referring workers to outside sources for further testing or medical treatment when indicated
11. Seeking workers' input for evaluation of program
12. Providing regular updates annually to management regarding the HLPP program

27

Success of hearing loss prevention program depends on workers' active participation by doing the following:

1. Provide information relative to current ear conditions, ear diseases and treatments, and ototraumatic exposure histories
2. Cooperate by following audiometric tester instructions
3. Inform the audiometric tester if instructions are unclear or if there are personal or environmental interferences
4. Comply with program by wearing appropriate hearing protection
5. Encourage coworkers to wear hearing protection
6. Report difficulties of safety hazards related to hearing protection use and/or changes in noise levels in work areas

28

If reliable information indicates noise exposure at the worksite........

Noise measurements should be conducted

29

Noise measurements should be performed by:

1. Acoustical engineer
2. Industrial hygienist
3. Occupational audiologist
4. Professional proficient in noise-level measurement

30

Only sound-level meters or noise dosimeters that meet ------------ should be used

The American National Standards

31

A sampling strategy that will pick up all ----------------- is needed

Continuous, intermittent and impulse sound levels from 80 to 130dBA is needed

32

All sound levels in the --------- should be used

Total noise measurement

33

---------- should be permitted to observe monitoring

Workers and their representatives

34

Workers who are exposed to noise at or above ---------- must be notified

8-hour TWA of 85dBA

35

Sound survey results are used to:

1. Identify areas of the worksite where hazardous noise levels exist
2. Identify workers to be included in the HLPP
3. Classify workers' noise exposures to define policies for hearing protection devices and prioritize areas for noise-control efforts
4. Identify safety hazards in terms of interference with speech communication and warning signal detection
5. Evaluate noise source for noise control purposes
6. Document noise levels for legal purposes

36

Noise control measures include:

1. Engineering controls
2. Administrative controls
3. Personal protective equipment

37

Engineering controls

The most effective and the most desirable long term solutions

38

To determine the engineering control that should be used, it is recommended that ------- be assessed

The noise characteristics

39

Common engineering controls for noise control are:

1. Elimination of noise source
2. Redesign of the process to be quieter
3. Isolation of the machinery to prevent vibrations and noise from radiating
4. Building an enclosure around noisy machinery
5. Using absorptive materials on walls and ceilings
6. Erecting a barrier or noise-reducing curtain around the noisy area
7. Adding a muffler to noisy tools
8. Keeping machinery well-balanced, oiled and in good repair

40

Administrative controls

Include work practices and are implemented when engineering and work practice controls are not feasible

May be used in conjunction with other strategies

41

Examples of administrative controls

1. Rotating workers to less noisy areas
2. Performing high-noise tasks when fewer workers are present

42

Personal protective equipment is provided when....

Engineering and administrative controls are not feasible and may be used in conjunction with other strategies

43

Workers should be provided with appropriate hearing protection devices such as:

1. Earplugs
2. Muffs
3. Helmets

44

Hearing protection devices should be provided...

1. In appropriate styles and types
2. At no cost to workers

45

When should training be conducted for workers who are included in the HLPP?

Initially for new hires and then annually

46

Components of HLPP training program

1. Interpreters should be provided for ESL employees
2. The characteristics of sound should be described
3. Workers should be told where noise is found
4. Multiple effects of noise should be described

47

Sound is defined as...

A complex combination of pure tones found in the environment that result in a vibratory disturbance in the pressure of fluid in the ear and capable of being detected by the organs of hearing

48

How do you tell workers where noise is found?

1. Cite occupational, recreation and environmental sources
2. Include that there are cumulative effects from multiple sources
3. Provide examples of different types of noise from actual locations at the worksite

49

Noise level of jet plane

140 dBA

50

Noise level of gunshot blast (impulse)

140dBA

51

Noise level of automobile horn

120 dBA

52

Noise level of rock band

110dBA

53

Noise level of chain saw

110dBA

54

Noise level of car racing

110dBA

55

Noise level of motorcycle

100dBA

56

Noise level of subway

90dBA

57

Noise level of average factory

80-90dBA

58

Noise level of noisy restaurant

80dBA

59

Noise level of busy traffic

75dBA

60

Noise level of conversational speech

65dBA

61

Noise level of average home

50dBA

62

Noise level of quiet office

40dBA

63

Noise level of soft whisper

30dBA

64

Effect of exposure to 80dBA noise

Usually will not cause permanent hearing loss

65

Effect of exposure to 110dBA noise

Long exposure over 90dBA may eventually cause permanent hearing loss

66

Effect of exposure to 110dBA noise

Noise induced hearing loss

67

Effect of exposure to 140dBA noise

Pain threshold
Acoustic trauma
May cause permanent damage to the delicate hair cells of the cochlea

68

Physical problems of noise exposure

1. Hearing loss
2. Effects on cardiovascular system
3. Effects on gastrointestinal system
4. Headache
5. Stress
6. Fatigue

69

Psychologic problems of noise exposure

1. Annoyance
2. Feeling of isolation among workers
3. Masking of warning shouts and signals
4. Interference with speech communication

70

Awareness of hearing loss usually does not occur until....

The loss is significant

71

Tinnitus

Aka ringing in the ear

A sign of an overtaxed auditory system

72

Perception that --------- is often a sign of hearing loss

Others are mumbling

73

Occupational hearing loss is usually

Bilateral

74

Hearing loss to only one ear may be caused by.....

Pathologic processes other than occupational exposures or acoustic trauma to that ear

75

Function of the outer ear

Collects sound waves and funnels them into the ear canal

76

Function of the middle ear

Sound impinged in e ear drum and is mechanically transmitted to the bones of the middle ear. Ossicular movement creates vibrations in the fluid-filled cochlea in the inner ear

77

Components of the middle ear

Ossicular chain which consists of:
1. Malleus
2. Incus
3. Stapes

78

Function of the inner ear

Transmits sound waves through hair cells in the cochlea that send electrical impulses to the auditory nerve, which transmits the signals to the brain where the sound is interpreted

79

Types if hearing loss

1. Acoustic trauma
2. Sensorineural
3. Conductive

80

Hearing loss from acoustic trauma

- results from a single exposure such as a loud, explosive blast or a blow to the head
-may rupture the eardrum and damage the middle and inner ear

81

Sensorineural hearing loss

-results in changes in the receptive cells; occurs from long-term exposure to noise
-is usually bilateral
-is not usually apparent until hearing loss is severe
-is usually irreversible, it's severity depending in the intensity, frequency and duration of noise exposure

82

Conductive hearing loss

-occurs from obstruction of sound through the outer and inner ear
-may be caused by wax buildup, presence of foreign body, ruptured eardrum, infection, otosclerosis or injury
- may be reversed or stabilized by appropriate treatment or surgery

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