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Anatomy and Physiology > Heart > Flashcards

Flashcards in Heart Deck (45):
1

what are the functions of the heart

1. pumps that circulates blood to all part of the body
2. transport oxygen and nutrients to cells
3. removes carbon dioxide and metabolic waste

2

where is the heart located

behind and slightly left of breastbone

3

blank lies on the diaphragm and points to the left of the body-between 5th and 6th ribs

apex

4

how much does the heart pump blood every min.

pumps about 5 quarts of blood every min or 6768 liters/day

5

in blank years life span av. the heart beats more than 2 billion times

70 years

6

after how many mins. is there irreversible brain damage

4 mins

7

how many liters of blood do we have in our body

5 liters

8

how big is the size of our hearts

size of your fist

9

this organ is a hollow muscular that weight less than one pound and a bit larger than a fist

The Heart

10

blank surrounds the heart fibrous tissue and is a double layer

pericardium

11

this is the outer layer of the pericardium

fibrous pericardium

12

blanks is the inner thinner more delicate double layered membrane surrounding the heart

serous pericardium

13

pericardial fluid between the two layers to prevent them from what

rubbing against each other preventing friction

14

myocardium is what

the middle layer of the heart muscle

15

this is the largest veins we have and this carries deoxygenated blood to the right atrium from all parts of the body

superior and inferior vena cava

16

this takes blood away from the heart

arteries

17

this takes blood away back to the heart

veins

18

the blank is a thin layer of endothelial connective tissue that lines the inside of the Myocardium

endocardium

19

blank covers the heart valves and lines blood vessels

myocardium

20

the septum separates what from what

right side and left side of the heart

21

what are the four chambers of the heart

2 atria or upper chambers
2 ventricles or lower chambers

22

atria is also called what

right atrium and left atrium

23

right heart has what type of blood

deoxygenated blood

24

left heart has what type blood

oxygenated blood

25

what is going on during the lubb sound

heart first closing of tricuspid and bicuspid valve

26

what is going on during the dubb sound

second called s2 sound - shorter and higher pitch - closing pulmonary semilunar valve and the pulmonary artery valve closing

27

What is MVP mitral valve prolapse

where the mitral valve closes imperfectly

28

this is the #1 cause of death for middle age men and post-menopausal women in United states

coronary artery disease

29

coronary artery disease Is usually d/t what

plaque buildup on artery walls

30

blank is the process by which fatty deposits (usually plaque) are deposited on the wall of the coronary arteries

atherosclerosis

31

MI is usually due to what

maybe d/t blockage of coronary artery by blood clot or blood supply to heart muscles or myocardium

32

what are non controllable risk factors

• Age
• Gender
• Heredity
• Race

33

what are primary risk factors

• Smoking
• Hypertension
• Diabetes
• Lack of exercise
• Hyperlipidemia
• Obesity

34

what are secondary (contributing) risk factors

• Stress
• Nutritional status

35

how do you prevent heart disease

• Don’t smoke
• Exercise regularly
• Maintain ideal wt.
• Reduce triglycerides and cholesterol levels
• Estrogen replacement for postmenopausal women if MD recommended

36

this occurs when ventricles cannot contract effectively and blood pools

heart failure

37

what are the symptoms of heart failure

• L sided sxs: dyspnea
• R sided sxs; engorgement of organs with venous blood occurs as well as edema (excessive fld in tissue) as ascited (abnormal accumulation of serous fld. In abd. Cavity

38

what is Similar to heart failure but also includes edema of lower extremities

congestive heart failure

39

this is the most common cause of sudden death in pts with CHD –triggered in most cases by PVC or v tach

rhythm/ conduction defects

40

this Occurs when the conduction system of the heart is affected

rhythm/conduction defects

41

what happens during v fib

muscle twitching-does not contract

42

how does twitching affect your body during v fib

Twitching ineffective to propel blood from the ventricle so circulation ceases abruptly and death ensues in min.

43

this is a procedure to open clogged vessels

angioplasty or balloon surgery

44

surgically rerouting or bypassing the affected area or blockage area of the coronary artery is called what

CABG

45

what is a cardiac stent

Tiny webbed stainless steel devices that hold arteries open after angioplasty