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PHASE 1 REVISION GUIDE > HEART > Flashcards

Flashcards in HEART Deck (39)
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1

what is the location of the heart?

in the mediastinum
slightly to the left
sits on top of diaphragm

2

what are the borders of the anterior mediastinum?

anterior = sternum
posterior = middle mediastinum

3

what are the contents of the anterior mediastinum?

thymus
lymph nodes
internal thoracic vessels
thyroid tissue

4

what are the contents of the of the middle mediastinum?

pericardium and heart
ascending aorta
SVC / IVC
brachiocephalic vessels
pulmonary vessels
trachea and main bronchi
phrenic, vagus and left recurrent laryngeal nerves

5

what are the borders of the superior mediastinum?

manubriosternal joint
interior edge of T4 body

6

what are the borders of the posterior mediastinum?

anterior = middle mediastinum
posterior = anterior thoracic vertebral column

7

what are the contents of the posterior mediastinum?

oesophagus
azygous and hemizygous
descending aorta

8

what are the different divisions of the mediastinum?

anterior
middle
superior
posterior

9

what are the different layers of tissue in the heart?

inner:
endocardium
myocardium
epicardium
pericardium

10

what is the epicardium of the heart?

the innermost layer
made of epithelial cell layer
lines the heart chambers and valves

11

what is the myocardium layer of the heart?

the muscular inner layer
contains cardiomyocytes

12

what is the structure of cardiomyocytes?

striated branching cells
many mitochondria
intercalated discs

13

what is the role of intercalated discs in cardiomyocytes?

allows for conduction of contraction

14

what is the epicardium layer of the heart?

it covers the surface of the heart and great vessels

15

what is the pericardium of the heart?

it is a double layered sac
there is a fibrous pericardium and a serous pericardium

16

what is the fibrous pericardium?

it is the outer layer of the pericardium
made of tough connective tissue which anchors the heart to the mediastinum

17

what is the serous pericardium?

made of simple squamous epithelium
has visceral pericardial layer on outer surface of heart
has parietal outer layer that lines the fibrous pericardium - it secretes fluid

18

what does the right coronary artery supply?

the right atrium and the right ventricle

19

what does the right marginal artery of the heart supply?

the right ventricle and the apex

20

what does the left circumflex artery supply?

supplies the left atrium and left ventricle

21

what does the left anterior descending artery (LAD) supply?

supplies right ventricle, left ventricle and interventricular septum

22

what does the left marginal artery supply?

the left ventricle

23

what does the aortic sac develop into?

the aortic arches

24

what does the truncus arteriosus develop into?

aortic arches and arteries

25

what does the bulbus cordis develop into?

right ventricle and outflow tracts

26

what does the primitive ventricle develop into?

left ventricle

27

what does the primitive atrium develop into?

parts of the right and left atrium

28

what does the sinus venosus develop into?

superior vena cava and right atrium

29

what are the different parts of the primitive heart?

aortic sac
truncus arteriosus
bulbus cordis
primitive ventricle
primitive atrium
sinus venosus

30

which layer of the trilaminar disc does the heart develop from?

the mesodermal germ layer