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Flashcards in Heart Anatomy Deck (36):
1

Borders of mediastinum (Page 2)

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2

Clinical significance of the sternal angle (Page 3)

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3

Right, inferior and left borders of heart (Page 3+7)

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4

Surface location of heart apex (Page 3)

Between 5th and 6th ic space
Mid clavicular line
---> If more lateral to m/c line then cardiomegaly

5

Layers of pericardium in order (Page 4)

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6

Layers of serous pericardium (Pg 4)

Parietal and visceral

7

Layers of visceral pericardium (Pg 4)

Epicardium
Myocardium
Endocardium

8

Visceral pericardium = ? (Pg 4)

Epicardium

9

Nerve supply to pericardium (Pg 4)

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10

Pericardial Drain (Pg 3+4)

Just inf. to xiphisternum
If in IC spaces, at risk of puncturing pleura or heart itself
To treat cardiac tamponade (Fluid - pus, air, blood in pericardial space causing increased pressure on the heart)

11

Pericardium attaches inferiorly to.. (Pg 4)

The diaphragm (Help keep heart in place)

12

Sinuses of heart and significance (Pg 5)

1. Transverse pericardial sinus:
- Separates arteries and veins
- Can be used to bypass blood while performing heart surgery

2. Oblique pericardial sinus:
- More inferior
- Like a pocket
- Stops at pulmonary veins

13

Two grooves on anterior surface (Pg 7)

1. Atrioventricular groove
- Contains right coronary artery

2. Anterior inter ventricular groove
- Contains large a branch of left coronary artery called the "Left anterior descending artery"

14

Posterior heart main structure (Pg 7)

Left atrium

15

Coronary sinus (Pg 7)

Just inferior to left atrium
Lies in post. atrioventricular groove
Drains blood from coronary arteries into R atrium

16

Label mediastinum x-ray in book (Pg 8)

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17

Coronary Circulation (Pg 9)

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18

Anastamoses of Coronary arteries

1) Circumflex artery with Right coronary artery in the atrioventricular groove.

2) Left anterior descending artery with the posterior inter-ventricular artery in the inter ventricular groove.

19

Important consideration for surgery in terms of heart blood supply (Pg 9)

Some people have either left or right coronary artery being the primary blood supply.

20

Features of Right atrium (Pg 12)

1) Musculi Pectinati - Muscular surface posteriorly which contracts.

2) Crista Terminalis - Smooth wall of atrium more anteriorly (just like a vein)

3) SVC and IVC openings

4) Fossa ovalis (Closed foramen ovale)

5) Opening of coronary sinus

6) Right auricle (Muscular surface)

21

Tricuspid valve (Pg 12)

Three cuffs
Chordae Tendinae -> Make sure valve doesn't fly
Papillary Muscles during systole

22

Features of Right ventricle (Pg 12)

Chordae tendinae/Papillary muscle system

Trabeculae carnae - Contracting muscle ventricular wall

Septomarginal trabecula (Moderator Band) - Runs from interventricular septum to marginal wall provides a shortcut for impulses to insure co-ordinated contraction.

Conus Arteriosus - The upper front part of the right ventricle of the heart (near the pulmonary valve)

23

Pulmonary valve (Pg 12)

Consists of 3 semilunar cusps "pockets"
- Anterior, right and left semilunar cusps

24

Features of Left atrium (Pg 13)

Mostly just a smooth surface (just a vein)
- Looks flat in cadarver

Only auricle is muscular

Left pulmonary veins (Superior and inferior)

Right pulmonary veins

25

Mitral Valve (Pg 13)

Bicuspid (Anterior and posterior cusp)
Chordae Tendinae
Papillary muscles

26

Features of left ventricle (Pg 13)

Chorae tendinae/Papillary muscle system

Trabeculae carnae - Muscular ventricular wall

27

Learn surface anatomy of heart and be able to draw it and show where the valves are (Pg 14)

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28

Aortic valve faces the ? side (Pg 14)

Right side

29

Order of conduction system (Pg 16)

1. Sinoatrial node
2. Atrioventricular node
3. AV bundle of HIS
4. Right and left bundle branches
5. Septomarginal trabecula (Moderator band)
6. Subendocardial branches (Purkinje fibres)

30

What does the right coronary artery supply mostly and what happens if ischaemia of these arteries? (Pg 16)

SA and AV nodal branches
-If failure you get arrhythmia

31

What does the left coronary artery supply mostly and what happens if ischaemia of these arteries? (Pg 16)

Left and right ventricles
-If failure you get pump failure

32

What happens to the heart when the AV node receives the impulse (just before systole)? (Pg 16)

Interventricular septum stiffens to prevent it being pushed over to the right atrium.

Papillary muscles contract to prepare for systole

33

Cardiac plexus sympathetic and parasympathetic supply? (Pg 17)

Symp: T1-T5 of sympathetic trunk
Para: Vagus nerve

34

Sympathetic action on heart? (Pg 17)

Dilates coronary arteries
Increases contraction strength
Increases heart rate

35

Pain described if pericardium was irritated? (Pg 17)

Supplied by phrenic nerve (C3-C5) so sharp shoulder pain

36

Pain described if heart was irritated? (Pg 17)

Supplied by visceral nerves so general, vague pain.